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Treaty of Peace (Küçük Kaynarca), 1774

1. Public Treaty

        ART. I. From the present time all the hostilities and enmities which have hitherto prevailed shall cease for ever, and all hostile acts and enterprises committed on either side, whether by force of arms or in any other manner, shall be buried in an eternal oblivion, without vengeance being taken for them in any way whatever; but, on the contrary, there shall always be a perpetual, constant, and inviolable peace, as well by sea as by land. In like manner there shall be cultivated between the two High Contracting Parties, Her Majesty the Empress of all the Russias and His Highness, their succes­sors and heirs, as well as between the two empires, their states, territories, subjects, and inhabitants, a sincere union and a perpetual and inviolable friendship, with a careful accomplishment and maintenance of these Articles; so that neither of the two parties shall, in future, undertake with respect to the other any hostile act or design whatsoever, either secretly or openly. And in consequence of the renewal of so sincere a friendship, the two Contracting Parties grant respectively an amnesty and general pardon to all such of their subjects, without distinction, who may have been guilty of any crime against one or other of the two Parties; delivering and setting at liberty those who are in the gallies or in prison; permitting all banished persons or exiles to return home, and promising to restore to them, after the peace, all the honours and property which they before enjoyed, and not to subject them, nor allow others to subject them, with impunity, to any insult, loss, or injury under any pretext whatso­ever; but that each and every of them may live under the safeguard and protection of the laws and customs of his native country in the same manner as his native fellow countrymen.

        II. If, after the conclusion of the Treaty and the exchange of the ratifications, any subjects of the two Empires, having committed any capital offence, or having been guilty of disobedience or of treason, should endeavour to conceal themselves, or seek an asylum in the territories of one of the two Powers, they must not be received or sheltered there under any pretext, but must be immediately delivered up, or at least expelled, from the States of the Power whither they had escaped, in order that, on account of such criminals, there should not arise any coolness or useless dispute between the two Empires, with the exception, however, of those who, in the Empire of Russia, shall have embraced the Christian religion, and, in the Ottoman Empire, the Mahometan religion. In like manner, should any subjects of the two Empires, whether Christians or Mahometans, having committed any crime or offence, or for any reason whatsoever, pass from one Empire into the other, they shall be immediately delivered up, so soon as a requisition to that effect is made.

        III. All the Tartar peoples - those of the Crimea, of the Budjiac, of the Kuban, the Edissans, Geambouiluks and Editschkuls­ shall, without any exception, be acknowl­edged by the two Empires as free nations, and entirely independent of every foreign Power, governed by their own Sovereign, of the race of Ghengis Khan, elected and raised to the throne by all the Tartar peo­ples; which Sovereign shall govern them according to their ancient laws and usages, being responsible to no foreign Power whatsoever;  for which reason, neither the Court of Russia nor the Ottoman Porte shall in­terfere, under any pretext whatever, with the election of the said Khan, or in the domestic, political, civil and internal affairs of the same; but, on the contrary, they shall acknowledge and consider the said Tartar nation, in its political and civil state, upon the same footing as the other Powers who are governed by themselves, and are de­ pendent upon God alone. As to the cere­monies of religion, as the Tartars profess the same faith as the Mahometans, they shall regulate themselves, with respect to His Highness, in his capacity of Grand Caliph of Mahometanism, according to the precepts prescribed to them by their law, without compromising, nevertheless, the stability of their political and civil liberty. Russia leaves to this Tartar nation, with the exception of the fortresses of Kertsch and Jenicale (with their districts and ports, which Russia retains for herself), all the towns, fortresses, dwellings, territories, and ports which it has conquered in Crimea and in Kuban; the country situated between the rivers Berda, Konskie, Vodi, and the Dnieper, as well as all that situated as far as the frontier of Poland between the Boug and the Dniester, excepting the fortress of Oczakow, with its ancient territory, which shall belong, as heretofore. to the Sublime Porte, and it promises to withdraw its troops from their possessions immediately after the conclusion and exchange of the Treaty of Peace. The Sublime Ottoman Porte engages, in like manner, on its part, to abandon all right whatsoever which it might have over the fortresses, towns, habitations, &c., in Crimea, in Kuban, and in the island [sic] of Taman; to maintain in those places no garrison nor other armed forces, ceding these States to the Tartars in the same manner as the Court of Russia has done, that is to say, in full power and in absolute and independent sovereignty. In like manner the Sublime Porte engages, in the most solemn manner, and promises neither to introduce nor maintain, in future, any garrison or armed forces whatsoever in the above-mentioned towns, fortresses, lands, and habitations, nor, in the interior of those States, any intendant or military agent, of whatsoever denomination, but to leave all the Tartars in the same perfect liberty and independence in which the Empire of Russia leaves them.

        IV. It is conformable to the natural right of every Power to make, in its own country, such dispositions as it may consider to be expedient: in consequence whereof, there is respectively reserved to the two Empires a perfect and unrestricted liberty of constructing anew in their respective States, and within their frontiers, in such localities as shall be deemed advisable, every kind of fortresses, towns, habitations, edifices, and dwellings, as well as of repairing and rebuilding the old fortresses, towns, habitations, &c.

        V. After the conclusion of this happy peace, and the renewal of a sincere and neighbourly friendship, the Imperial Court of Russia shall always have, henceforth, at the Sublime Porte, a Minister of the second rank, that is to say, an Envoy or Minister Plenipotentiary; the Sublime Porte shall show to him, in his official character, all the attentions and respect which are observed towards the Ministers of the most distin­guished Powers; and upon all public occa­sions the said Minister shall immediately follow the Emperor's Minister, if he be of the same rank as the latter; but if he be of a different rank, that is to say, either su­perior or inferior, then the Russian Minister shall immediately follow the Ambassador of Holland, and, in his absence, that of Venice.

        VI. If any individual in the actual service of the Russian Minister during his stay at the Sublime Porte, having been guilty of theft or having committed any crime or act liable to punishment, should, for the purpose of escaping the penalty of the law, become Turk; although he cannot be prevented from so doing, yet after he has un­dergone the punishment be deserves, all the articles stolen shall be restored in toto, according to the specification of the Minister. But those who, being intoxicated, might be desirous of adopting the turban, must not be allowed so to do until after their fit of drunkenness is over, and they have come to their right senses; and even then, their final declaration shall not be taken, unless in the presence of an interpreter sent by the Min­ister, and of some Musslman free from the suspicion of partiality.

        VII. The Sublime Porte promises to protect constantly the Christian religion and its churches, and it also allows the Ministers of the Imperial Court of Russia to make, upon all occasions, representations, as well in favour of the new church at Constantinople, of which mention will be made in Article XIV, as on behalf of its officiat­ing ministers, promising to take such representations into due consideration, as being made by a confidential functionary of a neighbouring and sincerely friendly Power.

        VIII. The subjects of the Russian Em­pire, as well laymen as ecclesiastics, shall have full liberty and permission to visit the holy city of Jerusalem, and other places deserving of attention. No charatsch [ie., haraç or military-exemption tax], con­tribution, duty, or other tax, shall be exacted from those pilgrims and travellers by any one whomsoever, either at Jerusalem or elsewhere, or on the road; but they shall be provided with such passports and firmans as are given to the subjects of the other friendly Powers. During their sojourn in the Ottoman Empire, they shall not suffer the least wrong or injury; but, on the con­trary, shall be under the strictest protection of the laws.

        IX. The interpreters attached to the Russian Ministers resident at Constanti­nople, of whatever nation they may be, being employed upon State affairs, and consequently in the service of both Empires, must be regarded and treated with every degree of kindness; and they shall be subjected to no ill-treatment on account of the business with which they may be entrusted by their principals.

        X. If between the signing of these Articles of Peace and the orders which shall thereupon be dispatched by the Command­ers of the two respective armies, an engage­ment should anywhere take place, neither party shall be offended thereat, nor shall it be productive of any consequences, every acquisition made thereby being restored, and no advantage shall accrue therefrom to one party or the other.

        XI. For the convenience and advantage of the two Empires, there shall be a free and unimpeded navigation for the merchantships belonging to the two Contracting Powers, in all the seas which wash their shores; the Sublime Porte grants to Russian merchant-vessels, namely, such as are universally employed by the other Powers for commerce and in the ports, a free passage from the Black Sea into the White Sea, and reciprocally from the White Sea into the Black Sea, as also the power of entering all the ports and harbours situated either on the sea-coasts, or in the passages and channels which join those seas. In like manner, the Sublime Porte allows Russian subjects to trade in its States by land as well as by water and upon the Danube in their ships, in conformity with what has been specified above in this Article, with all the same privileges and ad­ vantages as are enjoyed in its States by the most friendly nations, whom the Sublime Porte favours most in trade, such as the French and the English; and the capitula­tions of those two nations and others shall, just as if they were here inserted word for word, serve as a rule, under all circum­ stances and in every place, for whatever concerns commerce as well as Russian merchants, who upon paying the same duties may import and export all kinds of goods, and disembark their merchandize at every port and harbour as well upon the Black as upon the other Seas, Constantinople being expressly included in the number.

        While granting in the above manner to the respective subjects the freedom of commerce and navigation upon all waters with­ out exception, the two Empires, at the same time, allow merchants to stop within their territories for as long a time as their affairs require, and promise them the same security and liberty as are enjoyed by the subjects of other friendly Courts. And in order to be consistent throughout, the Sublime Porte also allows the residence of Consuls and Vice-Consuls in every place where the Court of Russia may consider it expedient to establish them, and they shall be treated upon a perfect footing of equality with the Consuls of the other friendly Powers. It permits them to have interpreters called Baratli, that is, those who have patents, providing them with Imperial patents, and causing them to enjoy the same prerogatives as those in the service of the said French, English, and other nations. Similarly, Russia permits the subjects of the Sublime Porte to trade in its dominions, by sea and by land, with the same prerogatives and advantages as are enjoyed by the most friendly nations, and upon paying the accustomed duties. In case of accident happening to the vessels, the two Empires are bound respectively to render them the same assistance as is given in similar cases to other friendly nations; and all necessary things shall be furnished to them at the ordinary prices.

        XII. When the Imperial Court of Russia shall have the intention of making any Commercial Treaty with the regencies of Africa, as Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers, the Sublime Porte engages to employ its power and influence in order to accomplish the views of the above-named Court in this respect, and to guarantee, as regards those regencies, all the conditions which shall have been stipulated in those Treaties.

        XIII. The Sublime [Porte] promises to employ the sacred title of the Empress of all the Russias in all public acts and letters, as well as in all other cases, in the Turkish language, that is to say, "Temamen Roussielerin Padischag.''

        XIV. After the manner of the other Powers, permission is given to the High Court of Russia, in addition to the chapel built in the Minister's residence, to erect in one of the quarters of Galata, in the street called Bey Oglu, a public church of the Greek ritual, which shall always be under the protection of the Ministers of that Empire, and secure from all Coercion and outrage.

        XV. Although, according to the manner in which the boundaries of the two Contracting Powers are arranged, there is every reason to hope that the respective subjects shall no longer find any occasion for serious differences and disputes amongst them­ selves, nevertheless, at all events to guard against whatever might occasion a coolness or cause a misunderstanding, the two Empires mutually agree that all such cases of disagreement shall be investigated by the Governors and Commanders of the frontiers, or by Commissioners appointed for that purpose, who shall be bound, after making the necessary inquiries, to render justice where it is due, without the least loss of time: with the express condition that events of this nature shall never serve as a pretext for the slightest alteration in the friendship and good feeling re-established by this Treaty.

        XVI. The Empire of Russia restores to the Sublime Porte the whole of Bessarabia, with the cities of Ackermann, Kilija, Ismail, together with the towns and villages, and all contained in that Province; in like manner it restores to it the fortress of Bender. Similarly the Empire of Russia restores to the Sublime Porte the two Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, together with all the fortresses, cities, towns, villages, and all which they contain, and the Sublime Porte receives them upon the following conditions, solemnly promising to keep them religiously:

1. To observe, with respect to all the in­ habitants of these Principalities, of what­ ever rank, dignity, state, calling, and extraction they may be, without the least exception, the absolute amnesty and eternal oblivion stipulated in Article I of the Treaty, in favour of all those who shall have actually committed any crime, or who shall have been suspected of having had the intention of doing injury to the interests of the Sublime Porte, re-establishing them in their former dignities, ranks, and possessions, and restoring to them the property which they were in the enjoyment of previously to the present war.
2. To obstruct in no manner whatsoever the free exercise of the Christian religion, and to interpose no obstacle to the erection of new churches and to the repairing of the old ones, as has been done heretofore.
3. To restore to the convents and to other individuals the lands and possessions formerly belonging to them, which have been taken from them contrary to all justice, and which are situated in the environs of Brahilow, Choczim, Bender, &c., now called Rai.
4. To entertain for ecclesiastics the particular respect due to their calling.
5. To grant to families who shall be desirous to quit their country in order to establish themselves elsewhere, a free egress with all their property; and in order that such families may duly arrange their affairs, to allow them the term of one year for this free emigration from their country, reckon ing from the day on which the present Treaty shall be exchanged.
6. Not to demand or exact any payment for old accounts, of whatever nature they may be.
7. Not to require from these people any contribution or payment for all the time of the duration of the war; and even, on ac­ count of the devastations to which they have been exposed, to relieve them from all taxes for the space of two years, reckoning, from the day on which the present Treaty shall be exchanged.
8. At the expiration of the above-mentioned term, the Porte promises to treat them with all possible humanity and generosity in the monetary taxes which it shall impose upon them, and to receive them by means of deputies, who shall be sent to it every two years; and after the payment of these taxes, no Bacha, Governor, nor  any other person whatsoever shall molest them, or exact from them any other payments or taxes of what description soever, but they shall possess all the advantages which they enjoyed during the reign of the late Sultan.
9. The Porte allows each of the Princes of these two States to have accredited to it a Chargé d'Affaires, selected from among the Christians of the Greek communion, who shall watch over the affairs of the said Principalities, be treated with kindness by the Porte, and who, not withstanding their comparative want of importance, shall be considered as persons who enjoy the rights of nations, that is to say, who are protected from every kind of violence.
10. The Porte likewise permits that, according as the circumstances of these two Principalities may require, the Ministers of the Imperial Court of Russia resident at Constantinople may remonstrate in their favour; and promises to listen to them with all the attention which is due to friendly and respected Powers.

        XVII. The Empire of Russia restores to the Sublime Porte all the islands of the Archipelago which are under its dependence; and the Sublime Porte, on its part, promises:

1. To observe religiously, with respect to the inhabitants of these islands, the conditions stipulated in Article I concerning the general amnesty and the eternal oblivion of all crimes whatsoever, committed or suspected to have been committed to the prejudice of the interests of the Sublime Porte.
2. That the Christian religion shall not be exposed to the least oppression any more than its churches, and that no obstacle shall be opposed to the erection or repair of them; and also that the officiating ministers shall neither be oppressed nor insulted.
3. That there shall not be exacted from these islands any payment of the annual taxes to which they were subjected, namely, since the time that they have been under the dependence of the Empire of Russia; and that, moreover, in consideration of the great losses which they have suffered during the war, they shall be exempt from any taxes for two years more, reckoning from the time of their restoration to the Sublime Porte.
4.  To permit the families who might wish to quit their country, and establish them­ selves elsewhere, free egress with their property; and in order that such families may arrange their affairs with all due convenience, the term of one year is allowed them for this free emigration, reckoning from the day of the exchange of the present Treaty.
5. In case of the Russian fleet, at the time of its departure, which must take place within three months, reckoning from the day on which the present Treaty is exchanged, should be in need of anything, the Sublime Porte promises to provide it, as far as possible with all that may be necessary.

        XVIII. The Castle of Kinburn, situated at the mouth of the Dnieper, with a proportionate district along the left bank of the Dnieper, and the corner which forms the desert between the Bug and the Dnieper,remains under the full, perpetual, and incontestable dominion of the Empire of Russia.

        XIX. The fortresses of Jenicale and Kertsch situated in the peninsula of Crimea, with their ports and all therein contained, and moreover with their districts, commencing from the Black Sea, and following the ancient frontier of Kertsch as far as the place called Bugak, and from Bugak ascending in a direct line as far as the Sea of Azow, shall remain under the full, perpetual, and incontestable dominion of the Empire of Russia.

        XX. The city of Azow, with its district, and the boundaries laid down in the Conventions made in 1700, that is to say in 1113 between the Governor Tolstoi and Hassan Bacha, Governor of Atschug, shall belong in perpetuity to the Empire of Russia.

        XXI. The two Cabardes, namely, the Great and Little, on account of their proximity to the Tartars, are more nearly connected with the Khans of Crimea; for which reason it must remain with the Khan of Crimea to consent, in concert with his Council and the ancients of the Tatar nation, to these countries becoming subject to the Imperial Court of Russia.

        XXII. The two Empires have agreed to annihilate and leave in an eternal oblivion all the Treaties and Conventions heretofore made between the Two States, including therein the Convention of Belgrade, with all those subsequent to it; and never to put forth any claim grounded upon the said Conventions, excepting, however, the one made in 1700 between Governor Tolstoi and Hassan Bacha, Governor of Atschug, the subject of the boundaries of the district of Azow and of the line of demarcation of the frontier of Kuban, which shall remain invariably such as it has heretofore been.

        XXIII. The fortresses which are standing in a part of Georgia and of Mingrelia, as Bagdadgick, Kutatis, and Scheherban, conquered by the Russian arms, shall be considered by Russia as belonging to those whom they were formerly dependent; so that if, in ancient times, or for a very long period, they have act ally been under the dominion of the Sublime Porte, they shall be considered as belonging to it; and after the exchange of the present Treaty the Russian troops shall, at the time agreed upon, quit the said Provinces of Geo g1a and Mingrelia. On its part, the Sublime Porte engages, conformably to the contents of the present Article, to grant a general amnesty to all those in the said countries who, in the course of the present war, shall have offended it in any manner whatsoever. It renounces solemnly and for ever to exact tributes of children, male and female, and every other kind of tax. It engages to consider such of these people only as its subjects as shall have belonged to it from all antiquity; to leave and restore all the castles and fortified places which have been under the dominion of the Georgians and Mingrelians, to their own exclusive custody and government; as also not to molest in any manner the religion, monasteries, and churches; not to hinder the repairing of dilapidated ones, nor the building of new ones; and it promises that these people shall not be oppressed on the part of theGovernor of Tschildirsk, and other chiefs and officers, by exactions which despoil them of their property. But as the said people are subjects of the Sublime Porte, Russia must not, in future, intermeddle in any manner in their affairs, nor molest them in any way.

        XXIV. Immediately upon the signing and confirmation of these Articles, all the Russian troops which are in Bulgaria on the right bank of the Danube shall withdraw, and within one month, reckoning from the day of the signature, they shall cross to the other side of the river. When all the troops shall have passed the Danube, the castle of Hirsow shall be delivered up to the Turks, the said castle being evacuated to them when all the Russian troops shall have completely passed over to the left bank of that river. After which, the evacuation of Wallachia and Bessarabia shall be effected simultaneously, the term of two months being allowed for that operation. After all the Russian troops shall have quitted these two Provinces, the fortresses of Giurgewo and afterwards Brahilow on the one side (of the river), and on the other, the town of Ismail and the fortresses of Kilia and Akkerman, shall be delivered up to the Turkish troops, from all which places the Russian garrisons shall withdraw for the purpose of following the other troops, so that for the complete evacuation of the said Provinces the term of three months shall be assigned. Lastly, the Imperial troops of Russia shall, two months afterwards, withdraw from Moldavia, and shall pass over to the left bank of the Dniester; thus, the evacuation of all the aforesaid countries shall be effected within five months, reckoning from the above­ mentioned signing of the Treaty of Perpetual Peace between the two contracting Empires. When all the Russian troops shall have passed to the left bank of the Dniester, the fortresses of Chotzum and of Bender shall be given up to the Turkish troops; upon this condition, however, that the castle of Kinburn with the district belonging to it, and the desert situated between the Dnieper and the Boug, shall have been already restored in full, perpetual and incontestable sovereignty to the Empire of  Russia, conformably to Article XVIII of the Treaty of Perpetual Peace between the two Empires.

        As to the islands of the Archipelago, they shall be left, as heretofore, under the legitimate dominion of the Ottoman Porte, by the fleet and the Imperial troops of Russia, as soon as the arrangements and peculiar necessities of the fleet shall permit, with regard to which it is not possible to assign here the precise time. And the Sublime Porte, in order to accelerate as much as possible the departure of the said fleet, already engages, as a friendly Power, to furnish it, as far as it can, with every necessary of which it may be in need. During the stay of the Imperial troops of Russia in the Provinces to be restored to the Sublime Porte, the government and police shall remain there in the same vigour as at present and since the conquest, and the Porte must take no part whatever therein, during the whole of this time, nor until the entire withdrawal of all the troops. Up to the last day of their quitting these countries, the Russian troops shall be provided with all necessaries, as well provisions as other articles, in the same manner as they have hitherto been furnished with them.

        The troops of the Sublime Porte must not enter the fortresses which shall be restored to it, nor shall that Power commence to exercise its authority in the countries which shall be given up to it, until at each place or country which shall have been evacuated by the Russian troops, the Commander of those troops shall have given notice thereof to the officer appointed for that purpose on the part of the Ottoman Porte. The Russian troops may, at their pleasure, empty their magazines of ammunition and provisions which are in the fortresses, towns and wherever else they may be, and they shall leave nothing in the fortresses restored to the Sublime Porte but such Turkish artillery as is actually found there. The inhabitants in all the countries restored to the Sublime Porte, of whatever state and condition they may be, and who are in the Imperial service of Russia, have the liberty, besides the term allowed of one year, as assigned in the Articles XVI and XVII of the Treaty of Peace, of quitting the country and withdrawing with their families and property in the rear of the Russian troops; and conformably to the above-mentioned Articles, the Sublime Porte engages not to oppose their departure, neither then nor during the entire term of one year.

        XXV. All the prisoners of war and slaves in the two Empires, men and women, of whatever rank and dignity they may be, with the exception of those who, in the Empire of Russia shall have voluntarily quitted Mahometanism in order to embrace the Christian religion, or in the Ottoman Empire shall have voluntarily abandoned Christianity in order to embrace the Mahometan faith, shall be, immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of this Treaty, and without any excuse whatever, be [sic] set at liberty on either side, and restored and delivered up without ransom or redemption money; in like manner, all the Christians fallen into slavery, such as Poles, Moldavians, Wallachians, Peloponnesians, inhabitants of the islands, and Georgians, all, without the least exception, must be set at liberty without ransom or redemption money. Similarly all Russian subjects who, since the conclusion of this happy peace, shall by any accident have fallen into slavery, and who shall be found in the Ottoman Empire, must be set at liberty and restored in like manner; all which the Empire of Russia promises also to observe, on its part, towards the Ottoman Porte and its subjects.

        XXVI. After having received in Crimea and in Oczakow intelligence of the signature of these Articles, the Commander of the Russian army in Crimea, and the Governor of Oczakow must immediately communicate with each on the subject, and within two months after the signing of the Treaty send, respectively, persons duly ac­ credited for effecting, on the one hand, the cession, and on the other the taking possession, of the Castle of Kinburn, with the desert, as stipulated in Article XVIII above; and this the said Commissioners must absolutely effect within two months from the day of their meeting, in order that within four months, or even sooner, reckoning from the signing of the Treaty, the whole of this business be accomplished, and immediately after the said execution thereof, notice of the same shall be given to their Excellencies the Field-Marshal and the Grand Vizier.

        XXVII. But in order that the present peace and sincere friendship between the two Empires be so much the more strongly and authentically sealed and confirmed, there shall be sent on both sides solemn and extraordinary Embassies with the Imperial ratifications signed, confirmatory of the Treaty of Peace, at such time as shall be agreed upon by both the High Contracting Parties. The Ambassadors shall be met on the frontiers in the same manner, and they shall be received and treated with the same honours and ceremonies as are observed in the respective Embassies between the Ottoman Porte and the most respectable Powers. And as a testimonial of friend­ ship, there shall be mutually sent through the medium of the said Ambassadors presents which shall be proportionate to the dignity of their Imperial Majesties.

        And as the negotiation and accomplishment of this peace have been confided by the Sovereigns of the respective Empires to the care of the Commanders-in-chief of their armies, namely, the Field-Marshal Count Pierre de Roumanzow, and the Grand Vizier of the Sublime Porte, Mousson Zade Mechmet Bacha, the said Field­ Marshal and Grand Vizier must, by virtue of the full power given to each of them by their Sovereigns, confirm all the said Articles of the perpetual peace as they are here­ in expressed, and with the same force as if they had been drawn up in their presence, sign them with the seal of their coat-of arms, observe and faithfully and inviolably accomplish all that has been there stipulated and promised, do nothing, nor suffer anything whatsoever to be done in contravention of the said Treaty, and the copies, in every respect similar to the present one, signed by them, and having their seals attached, on the part of the Grand Vizier in the Turkish and Italian language, and on the part of the Field-Marshal in Russian and Italian, as well as the full-powers to them given by their Sovereigns, shall be respectively exchanged by the same persons above-mentioned, who have been sent, on the part of the Sublime Porte, to the Field­ Marshal,  within five days without fail reckoning from the day of the signing of the present Treaty, and sooner if it be possible it being, from this present time, determined that they shall receive the said copies from the Field-Marshal as soon as they shall have notified that those of the Grand Vizier have reached them ....

2. Separate Articles

        ART. I. Although it is indicated in Article XVII of the Treaty of Peace signed today, that in three months the Imperial Russian fleet will evacuate the islands of the archipelago, in Article XXIV of the same Treaty it is explained that, taking such a distance into consideration, it is not possible to specify how much time may be necessary; we have agreed to hold ourselves to the latter Article. Accordingly, we repeat that the said Imperial Russian fleet, will evacuate the archipelago as soon as Possible, without setting a time limit and to facilitate the evacuation, the sublime Porte will provide [the Imperial Russian fleet] with all that it needs for its voyage, insofar as that depends upon [the Sublime Porte].

        This separate Article will receive the same confirmation as the entire Treaty, and we shall give it the same force and validity as if it had been inscribed word for word in the Treaty executed today, in the faith of which we have signed it in our own hand and sealed it with our seals....       

        ART. II. It is regulated and established by this separate Article that the Sublime Porte will pay the sum of 15,000 purses or 7.5 million piasters, which in Russian money equals 4.5 million rubles, to the Russian Empire in three periods, for the expenses of the war. The first payment will fall due on 1/12 January 1775; the second payment, on 1/12 January 1776; the third payment, on 1/12 January 1777. Each payment of 5,000 purses will be made by the Sublime Porte to the Russian Minister accredited to the said Sublime Porte; and if the Court of Russia should wish some other assurance beyond that, the Ottoman Porte solemnly obligates itself to satisfy [Russia] on that score. This separate Article will be confirmed, together with the entire Treaty signed today and we shall give 1t the same force and validity as if it had been inscribed word for word in the Treaty concluded today between the two respective Empires; in the faith of which we have signed it with our hand and sealed it with our seals....

Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers, 1854, vol. 72, pp. 171-79.