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Treaty of Nerchinsk (Nibuchu), 1689

RUSSIAN TEXT

Божиею милостию великих государей, царей и великих князей Иоанна Алексеевича, Петра Алексеевича, всеа Великия и Малыя и Белыя России самодержцев и многих государств и земель восточных и западных и северных отчичей и дедичей и наследников и государей и обладателей, их царского величества великие и полномочные послы ближней окольничей и наместник брянской Федор Алексеевич Головин, стольник и наместник елатомской Иван Остафьевич Власов, дияк Семен Корницкой, будучи на посольских съездах близ Нерчинска великих азиацких стран повелителя, монарха самовластнейшого меж премудрейшими вельможи богдойскими, закона управителя, дел общества народа китайского хранителя и славы, настоящаго богдойского и китайского бугдыханова высочества с великими послы Самгута, надворных войск с начальником и внутренния полаты с воеводою, царства советником, да с Тумке-Камом, внутренния ж полаты с воеводою, первого чину князем и ханского знамени с господином и ханским дядею Иламтом, одного ж знамени господином и протчими, постановили и сими договорными статьями утвердили:

1-я

Река, имянем Горбица, которая впадает, идучи вниз, в реку Шилку, с левые стороны, близ реки Черной, рубеж между обоими государствы постановить.

Такожде от вершины тоя реки Каменными горами, которые начинаются от той вершины реки и по самым тех гор вершинам, даже до моря протягненными, обоих государств державу тако разделить, яко всем рекам малым или великим, которые с полудневные стороны с их гор впадают в реку Амур, быти под владением Хинского государства.

Такожде всем рекам, которые с другие стороны тех гор идут, тем быти под державою царского величества Российского государства. Прочие ж реки, которые лежат в средине меж рекою Удью под Российского государства владением и меж ограниченными горами, которые содержатца близ Амура, владения Хинского государства, и впадают в море и веяния земли посреди сущие, меж тою вышепомянутою рекою Удью и меж горами, которые до границы надлежат не ограничены, ныне да пребывают, понеже на оные земли заграничение великие и полномочные послы, не имеюще указу царского величества, отлагают не ограничены до иного благополучного времени, в котором при возвращении с обоих сторон послов царское величество изволит и бугдыханово высочество похочет о том обослатися послы или посланники любительными пересылки, и тогда или через грамоты или чрез послов тые назначенные неограниченные земли покойными и пристойными случаи успокоити и разграничить могут.

2-я

Такожде река, реченная Аргун, которая в реку Амур впадает, границу постановить тако, яко всем землям, которые суть стороны левые, идучи тою рекою до самых вершин под владением Хинского хана да содержитца, правая сторона: такожде все земли да содержатца в стороне царского величества Российского государства и все строение с полудневные стороны той реки Аргуни снесть на другую сторону тоя ж реки.

3-я

Город Албазин, которой построен был с стороны царского величества, разорить до основания и тамо пребывающие люди со всеми при них будущими воинскими и иными припасы да изведены будут в сторону царского величества и ни малого убытку или каких малых вещей от них тамо оставлено будет.

4-я

Беглецы, которые до сего мирного постановления как с стороны царского величества, так и с стороны бугдыханова высочества были, и тем перебещикам быть в обоих сторонах безрозменно, а которые после сего постановленного миру перебегати будут и таких беглецов без всякаго умедления отсылати с обоих сторон без замедления к пограничным воеводам.

5-я

Каким-либо ни есть людем с проезжими грамотами из обоих сторон для нынешние начатые дружбы для своих дел в обоих сторонах приезжати и отъезжати до обоих государств добровольно и покупать и продавать, что им надобно, да повелено будет.

6-я

Прежде будущие какие ни есть ссоры меж порубежными жители до сего постановленного миру были, для каких промыслов обоих государств промышленные люди преходити будут и разбои или убивство учинят, и таких людей поймав присылати в те стороны, из которых они будут, в порубежные городы к воеводам, а им за то чинить казнь жестокую; будет же соединясь многолюдством и учинят такое вышеписанное воровство, и таких своевольников, переловя, отсылать к порубежным воеводам, а им за то чинить смертная казнь. А войны и кровопролития с обоих сторон для таких притчин и за самые пограничных людей преступки не всчинать, а о таких ссорах писать, из которые стороны то воровство будет, обоих сторон к государем и розрывати те ссоры любительными посольскими пересылки.

Против усих постановленных о границе посольскими договоры статей, естли похочет бугдыханово высочество поставить от себя при границах для памяти какие признаки, и подписать на них сии статьи, и то отдаем мы на волю бугдыханова высочества.

Дан при границах царского величества в Даурской земле, лета 7197-го августа 27-го дня.

Таково ж письмо руки Андрея Белобоцкого написано и на латинском языке.

Скрепа по листам секретаря Федора Протопова.

С подлинною копиею читал переводчик Фома Розанов.

TRANSLATION

Their Majesties the Grand Dukes Joann Alexeevitch and Peter Alexeevitch, by the Grace of God [Joint] Emperors, Czars, and Autocrats of all the Russias, Great, Small, and White; Emperors and Lords over, and successors from immediate and remote ancestors to the Crowns of, many Kingdoms and Countries, Eastern, Western, and Northern; having appointed as their Envoys and Plenipotentiaries Theodorus Alexeevitch Golovin, Minister of the Presence and Governor-General of Briansk; Ivan Astaffjevitch Vlasoff, Minister of the Household and Governor-General of Elatomsk; and Semën Kornitsky, Deacon [of the Orthodox Church];

And His Majesty the Bogdokhan (i.e., Heavenly-appointed Ruler) of China, Supreme Ruler of Great Asiatic Countries, the Most Powerful Monarch, Wisest Ruler, Exponent of Heaven’s Law, Most Enlightened Noble, entrusted by Heaven with the government of China for the welfare and glory of its people, having appointed as his Envoys Sag-mu-tu, Commander of the Imperial Body Guard, Grand Secretary, and Councillor of State; Tum-ke-kam, Grand Secretary, Prince of the First Rank, Commander of Banner Corps, and Member of the Imperial Clan; and Lam-tan, Commander of Banner Corps, etc.:

And the aforesaid Envoys having met near Nerchinsk, they have agreed upon the following Articles: —

Article I.

The river Gorbitza, which joins the Schilka from its left side near the river Tchernaya, is to form the boundary between the two Empires. The boundary from the source of that river to the sea will run along the top of the mountain chain [in which the river rises]. The jurisdiction of the two Empires will be divided in such a way that all the rivers or streams flowing from the southern slope of these mountains to join the Amur shall belong to the Empire of China [lit. of Han], while all the rivers flowing down from the other [or northern] side of these mountains shall be similarly under the rule of His Majesty the Czar of the Russian Empire. As to the the other rivers which lie between the Russian river Oud and the aforesaid mountains—running near the Amur and extending to the sea — which are now under Chinese rule, the question of the jurisdiction over them is to remain open. On this point the [Russian] Ambassadors are [at present] without explicit instructions from the Czar. Hereafter, when the Ambassadors on both sides shall have returned [? to their respective countries], the Czar and the Emperor of China [Han] will decide the question on terms of amity, either by sending Plenipotentiaries or by written correspondence.

Article II.

Similarly, the river Argun, which flows into the Amur, will form the frontier along its whole length. All territory on the left bank is to be under the rule of the Emperor of China [Khan of Han]; all on the right bank will be included in the Empire of the Czar. All habitations on the south side will be transferred to the other.

Article III.

The fortified town of Albazin, built by His Majesty the Czar, is to be completely demolished, and the people residing there, with all military and other stores and equipment, are to be moved into Russian territory. Those moved can take all their property with them, and they are not to be allowed to suffer loss [by detention of any of it].

Article IV.

Fugitives [lit. runaways] from either side who may have settled in the other’s country previous to the date of this Treaty may remain. No claims for their rendition will be made on either side. But those who may take refuge in either country after the date of this Treaty of Amity are to be sent without delay to the frontier and at once handed over to the chief local officials.

Article V.

It is to be understood by both Governments that from the time when this Treaty of Amity is made, the subjects of either nation, being provided with proper passports, may come and go [across the frontier] on their private business and may carry on commerce [lit. buy and sell].

Article VI.

All the differences [lit. quarrels] which may have occurred between the subjects [of each nation] on the frontier up to the date of this Treaty will be forgotten and [claims arising out of them will] not be entertained. But if hereafter any of the subjects [lit. traders or craftsmen] of either nationality pass the frontier [as if] for private [and legitimate] business, and [while in the foreign territory] commit crimes of violence to property and life, they are at once to be arrested and sent to the frontier of their own country and handed over to the chief local authority [military], who will inflict upon them the death penalty as a punishment for their crimes. Crimes and excesses committed by private people on the frontier must not be made the cause of war and bloodshed by either side. When cases of this kind arise, they are to be reported by [the officers of] the side on which they occur to the Sovereigns of both Powers, for settlement by diplomatic negotiation in an amicable manner.

If the Emperor of China desires to engrave [on stone] the Articles of the above Treaty agreed upon by the Envoys for the determination of the frontier, and to place the same [at certain positions] on the frontier as a record, he is at liberty to do so. Whether this is to be done or not is left entirely to the discretion of His Majesty the Emperor of China.


LATIN TEXT

Sancti Sinarum Imperatoris mandate missi ad determinados limites Magnates.

Som Go Tu Praetorianorum militum praefectus interioris palatii Palatinus, Imperii consiliarius etc.

Tum Que Cam interioris palatii palatinus, primi ordinis comes, Imperialis vexilli dominus, Imperatoris avunculus etc.

Lam Tan vnius etiam vexilli dominus

Pam Tarcha item vnius vexilli dominus

Sap so circa Sagalien Via aliasque terras generalis exercituum praefectus

Ma La vnius vexilli praefectus

Wen Ta exterorum tribunalis alter praeses et caeteri una cum missis.

Dei gratia magnorum dominatorum Tzarum Magnorumque Ducum Ioannis Alexiewicz, Petri Alexiewicz totius magnae ac parvae, nec non albae Russiae Monarcharum, multorumque dominiorum ac terrarum Orientalium, Occidentalium ac Septemtrionalium, Prognatorum Haeredum, ac Successorum, dominatorum ac possessorum

Magnis ac plenipotentibus Suae Tzareae Majestatis Legatis Proximo Okolnitio ac locitenente Branski Theodoro Alexiewicz Golovin dapifero ac locitenente Iélatomski, Ioanne Eustahievicz Wlasoph Cancellario Simeone Cornitski

Anno Cam Hi 28-o crocei serpentis dicto 7-ae Lunae die 24 props oppidum Nipehou congregatitum ad coercendam et reprimendam insolentiam eorum inferioris notae venatorum hominum, qui extra proprios limites, sive venabundi, sive se mutuo occidentes, sive depraedantes, sive perturbationes aut tumultus quoscumque commoventes pro suo arbitrio excurrunt, turn ad limites inter utrumque Imperium Sinicum videlicet et Ruthenicum claré ac perspicué determinandos ac constituendos, turn denique ad pacem perpetuam stabiliendam aeternumque foedus percutiendum, sequentia puncta ex mutuo consensu statuimus ac determinavimus.

I.

Rivulus nomine Kerbichi, qui rivo Chorna Tartaricé Vrum dicto proximus adiacet et fiuvium Sagalien Via influit, limites inter utrumque Imperium constituet. Item a vertice rupis seu montis lapidei, qui est supra dicti rivuli Kerbichi fontem et originem et per ipsa huius montis cacumina usque ad mare, utriusque Imperii ditionem ita dividet, ut omnes terrae et fluvii sive parvi sive magni qui a meridionali huius montis parte in fiuvium Sagalien Via infiuunt sint sub Imperii Sinici dominio, omnes terrae vero et omnes rivi qui ex altera montis parte ad Borealem plagam vergunt sub Ruthenici Imperii dominio remaneant, ita tamen, ut quicunque fluvii in mare influunt et quaecumque terrae sunt intermediae inter fiuvium Vdi et seriem montium pro limitibus designatam prointerim indeterminatae rehnquantur. De his autem post uniuscuiusque Imperii legatorum in proprium regnum reditum rité examinatis et clare cognitis vel per legatos vel per Utteras postea determinabitur. Item fluvius nomine Ergon qui etiam supra dictum fiuvium Sagalien Via influit, limites ita constituet, ut omnes terrae quae sunt ex parte meridionali ad Sinicum, quae vero sunt ex parte boreali, ad Ruthenicum Imperium pertineant: et omnes aedes quae ex parte dicti fluminis meridionali in faucibus fluvii nomine Meyrelke extructae sunt ad littus boreale transferentur.

II.

Arx seu fortalitia in loco nomine Yagsa a Russis extructa funditus eruetur ac destruetur. Omnesque illam incolentes Rutheni Imperii subditi cum omnibus suis cuiuscumque generis rebus in Russi Imperii terras deducentur.

Atque extra hos limites determinatos nullam ob causam utriusque Imperii venatores transibunt.

Quod si unus aut duo inferioris notae homines extra hos statutos limites vel venabundi, vel latrocinaturi divagabuntur, statim in vincula coniecti ad illarum terrarum constitutos in utroque Imperio Praefectos deducentur, qui cognitam illorum culpam debitâ poenâ muletabunt : Si vero ad decem aut quindecim simul congregati et armis instructi, aut venabuntur, aut alterius Imperii homines Occident, aut depraedabuntur de hoc ad uniuscuiusque Imperii Imperatores referetur, omnesque huius criminis rei capitali poenâ mulctabuntur, nee bellum propter quoscumque particularium hominum excessus suscitabitur, aut sanguinis effusio procurabitur.

III.

Quaecumque prius acta sunt, cuiuscumque generis sint, aeternâ oblivione sopiantur. Ab eo die quo inter utrumque Imperium haec aeterna pax iurata fuerit, nulli in posterum ex altero Imperio transfugae in alteram Imperium admittentur : sed in vincula coniecti statim reducentur.

IV.

Quicumque veró Rutheni Imperii subditi in Sinico et quicumque Sinici Imperii in Ruthenico nunc sunt, in eodem statu relinquantur.

V.

Propter nunc contractam amicitiam atque aeternum foedus stabihtum, cuiuscumque generis homines litteras patentes iteneris sui afferentes, licité accedent ad regna utriusque dominii, ibique vendent et ement quaecumque ipsis videbuntur necessaria mutuo commercio.

VI.

Conciho inter utriusque Imperii legatos celebrato, et omnibus utriuisque Regni lihmitum contentionibus diremptis, paceque stabilitâ, et aeterno amicitiae foedere percusso, si hae omnes determinatae conditiones rité observabuntur, nullus erit amplius perturbationi locus.

Ex utraque parte hujus foederis conditiones scripto mandabuntur, duplexque exemplar huic conform e sigillo munitum sibi invicem tradent magni utriusque Imperii legati.

Demum et iuxta hoc idem exemplar eaedem conditiones Sinico Ruthenico et latino idiomate lapidibus incidentur, qui lapides in utriusque Imperii limitibus in perpetuum ac aeternum monumentum erigentur.

Datum apud Nipchou anno Cam Hi 28-o 7-ae Lunae die 24.

TRANSLATION

The Divine Emperor of China, having mandated these Lords sent to determine the border:

Som Go Tu, Commander of the Imperial Body Guard, Grand Secretary, and Councillor of State etc.;

Tum Que Cam, Grand Secretary, Prince of the First Rank, Banner Corps Commander, Uncle of the Emperor, etc.;

Lam Tan, Banner Corps Commander;

Pam Tarcha, Banner Corps Commander;

Sap So, Garrison Commander of the Sagalien;

Ma La, Captain-General of the Guards;

Wen Ta, Vice Minister of the Li-fan Yüan:

And the Grand Dukes Ioannis Alexiewicz and Petri Alexiewicz, by Grace of God Monarchs of all the Russias, Great, Small, and White, born heirs, successors, lords and possessors to many domains and lands, Eastern, Western, and Northern;

Their great and powerful Czarist Majesties having appointed the following as their envoys Theodoro Alexiewicz Golovin, Okolnichy and Governor-General of Branski; Ioanne Eustahievicz Wlasoph, steward and Governor-General of Iélatomski; and Simeone Cornitski, chancellor;

Having gathered on Monday the 24th, of the 7th month, 28th year of Kangxi (year of the Earth Snake) near the town of Nipchou to prevent and repress the insolence of worthless hunters, who, outside the proper limits, engage at pleasure in hunting, or mutual killings, or robbery, or disorders, disturbances, and agitations of all kinds; and to fix clearly the boundary between both empires of China and Russia, with a view to perpetuating peaceful relations between them; have agreed by mutual consent upon the following Articles: —

Article I.

The river Kerbichi, which joins the Sagalien from its left side near the river Chorna — or Vrum in the Tartar language — is to form the boundary between the two countries. The boundary from the source of that river to the sea will run along the top of the mountain chain: the land and all the rivers or streams flowing from the southern [slope] of these mountains to join the Sagalien shall be under the administration of China, while the land and all the rivers flowing from the northern side of these mountains shall be under the jurisdiction of Russia. As to the rivers and lands which lie between the river Vdi and the aforesaid mountains, the question of how to divide them is to remain undecided for now. When the Ambassadors of both sides have returned to their respective countries, and after detailed investigation, the question will be decided either by the sending of Envoys or by written correspondence. Also, the river Ergon, which flows into the Sagalien, will form the frontier along its whole length. All territory on the south bank belongs to China; all on the north bank to Russia. All habitations at the mouth of the Meyrelke river on the south side of the Ergon will be moved to the north side.

Article II.

The fortified town at Yagsa, built by the Russians, is to be completely demolished, and the people residing there, with all military and other stores and equipment are to be moved, unhindered, into Russian territory.

Those from hunting households of the two Empires, no matter for what reason, are not allowed to cross the fixed boundary at will.

If one or two worthless persons, for purposes of hunting or thievery, presumptuously cross the boundary, they are to be arrested and handed back to the domestic officials of their respective sides and, once their case has been clarified, immediately punished according to law. If ten or more [larger groups of] persons cross the boundary and assemble, whether armed for hunting or for killing people and plundering, this must be reported to the Emperors of the two countries and they must be punished with the death penalty for their crime. Crimes and excesses committed by a few [private] persons on the frontier must definitely not be permitted to become the cause for war, even less for bloodshed.

Article III.

All the issues which may have occurred prior to this Treaty will be forgotten. But, now that perpetual peace has been established between the two Empires, if in future there are fugitives, neither side will take them in, but must apprehend and return them.

Article IV.

Russians presently in China and Chinese presently in Russia, will be treated as in the past.

Article V.

From the date of this Peace Treaty, any subject of either nation carrying a passport may come and go across the frontier and may carry on commerce in both markets.

Article VI.

Now that peace has been established, the two countries will forever maintain friendly relations, and henceforward all frontier disagreements will be done away with, for if both sides seriously adhere to the treaty clauses, controversies cannot arise.

The Commissioners of the two countries have each signed and sealed the collated treaty texts, and each retains both an original and a copy.

This treaty will be engraved in the Chinese, Russian and Latin languages in stone, to be set up on the boundary between the two countries, to serve forever as boundary marker[s].

Done in Nipchou in the 28th year of Kangxi, 7th month, Monday the 24th.


MANCHU TEXT

TRANSLATION OF MANCHU TEXT

The Divine Emperor of China, having appointed as Imperial Border-Defining Commissioners So-e-t'u, Commander of the Imperial Body Guard, Grand Secretary, and Councillor of State; Tung Kuo-kang, Grand Secretary, Prince of the First Rank, Banner Corps Commander, and Uncle of the Emperor; Lang-t'an, Banner Corps Commander; Pan-ta-li-sha, Banner Corps Commander; Sa-pu-su, Garrison Commander of Hei-lung-chiang etc.; Ma-la, Captain-General of the Guards; and Wen-ta, Vice Minister of the Li-fan Yüan, in conjunction with the envoys of the Russian Ch'ahan Khan E-kun-ni (Kornitski) etc., in public deliberation at this place of Nerchinsk, have agreed:

(1) Let the Kerbechi River near the Shorna River (Cho-er-na), i.e., the Urwin River (Wu-lung-mu) which flows northward into the Hei-lungchiang, serve as the natural demarcation line. Along the upper tributary of this said river in the desert region, let the Hsing-an Mountains (Shihta Hsing-an), which extend toward the sea, also serve as natural boundaries. South of the Hsing-an Mountains, the rivers and brooks flowing into the Hei-lung-chiang belong to China; north of the mountains the rivers and brooks belong to Russia.

(2) Let the Ergone River (E-er-ku-na), which flows into the Hei-lung- chiang, serve as another natural demarcation line. The south bank of this river belongs to China and the north bank belongs to Russia. At the mouth of the Meriken River (Mei-le-er-k'o) all Russian houses must be moved to the north bank.

(3) All of the cities (ostrogs) which Russia built in the area of Ya-k'o- sa shall be destroyed. The Russian people who dwell at Ya-k'o-sa should withdraw with all their belongings into the territory of the Ch'ahan Khan.

(4) Hunters and subjects of these two Empires are absolutely forbidden to cross the boundary. If they disobey, they should be seized immediately and sent to the local administrators who control them directly. They should be punished according to the degree of their crimes. If incidents occur where ten or fifteen armed persons gather to hunt, to kill or to plunder, they must be reported to the Throne. The violators must be executed. However, small accidents cannot hinder great affairs. Russia will still be friendly with China and will cause no conflict so that strife will be forgotten. All Russian subjects in China and all Chinese subjects in Russia shall remain where they are and do not need to be repatriated.

(5) From now on [the two empires] will be permanent friends; therefore, all travellers are allowed to trade, provided they have passports.

(6) After peace is made and an oath is sworn neither empire will be allowed to harbor fugitives. All fugitives should be repatriated immediately.


Bakradze, D.Z. Sbornik dogovorov Rossii s Kitaem, 1689-1881 gg. (Collection of Agreements of Russia with China, 1689-1881). Sankt Peterburg: Izdanie Ministerstva Inostrannykh Del. 1889. pp. 1-10. (Latin, Russian and Manchu texts)
China. Treaties, Conventions, etc., between China and Foreign States, misc. series no. 30. Shanghai: Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs, 1917. pp. 3-13. (English translation of Russian text)
Fu, Lo-shu. A Documentary Chronicle of Sino-Western Relations (1644-1820). Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, 1966. pp. 101. (English translation of Manchu text)