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The Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895

This Treaty ended the First Sino-Japanese War on April 17, 1895, after some nine months of fighting. The Treaty replaced the Sino-Japanese Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Treaty, signed in 1871, and granted Japan terms that the first agreement did not consider. The main terms recognized the independence of Korea, Japanese control over Taiwan and the Penghu Islands (Pescadores Islands), as well as the opening of four more Chinese ports (Shashi, Chongqing, Suzhou, and Hangzhou)*It is worth remembering that Shashi and Chongqing were strategically located in the interior of China but reached through the Yangtze River. This was a market Western Powers, especially Great Britain, had previously penetrated. in addition to those opened by the 1871 treaty. It also required China to pay a war indemnity in a total amount of 200 million Kuping taels, which corresponded to approximately 350 million yen, or around 70% of the GNP of Japan at that time.*Iwamura, M. Gendai Chugokuno rekishi. Dai 2kan. Naisen kara konichihe. Tokyo: Tokumashoten, 1966. Japan, in turn, spent a total amount of 233,400 million yen to wage war.*Showa kokusei soran. Gekan. Tokyo: Toyo keizai shinposha, 1980.

        According to Matsukata Masayoshi, China paid this amount in pounds sterling, which corresponded to £37,836,127, divided into eight installments. The first and second installments of 50 million taels each were deposited in London. The first installment was paid within six months after the ratification of the Treaty, the second within twelve months.*The payment of the indemnity favoured the adoption of the Gold Standard by Japan, in 1897, a monetary system dominated by European capitalist countries. Matsukata Masayoshi, Report on the adoption of the gold standard in Japan, (New York: Arno Press, 1979). Japan also claimed the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula (see the map attached to the Treaty), but this was rescinded after the Triple Intervention of France, Germany and Russia, who compelled Japan to withdrawal in return for an additional indemnity of 30 million Kuping taels.

        Liaodong Peninsula was a key position in China that, once established, would facilitate access to other ports and also Beijing. A concession in the Peninsula would raise Japan to the rank of a European financial interests in an almost unopened market like China. The Intervention crudely swung further advantage to Western Great Powers.*For further details on the Triple Intervention, see S.C.M. Paine, ‘The Triple Intervention and the Termination of the First Sino-Japanese War,’ in B.A. Elleman, S.C.M. Paine (eds.), Naval coalition warfare: from the Napoleonic War to Operation Iraqi Freedom, (London: Routledge, 2008). France secured its sphere of influence in southwest China along the border with northern Vietnam in 1895, and, from 1896 to 1898, gained additional benefits in the same region. Germany strengthened its geo-political and economic interests in Hankou and Tianjin in 1895, as well as in Shandong province from 1897. As for Russia, it acquired China’s permission to construct a “shortcut” of the Trans-Siberian Railway through the Chinese domain in northern Manchuria.*The Trans-Siberian Railway, which linked Moscow to Vladivostok, originally ran north of the Manchurian border on the Russian side, but the section near the Amur River, around 1,300 miles, was the toughest region to access due to dense forest, numerous rivers, low population density and harsh weather. The route that offered the fewest obstacles to construction was through Chinese territory in northern Manchuria, which would save a distance of approximately 550 kilometres. Sergei Witte, The Memoirs of Count Witte, (London: William Heinemann, 1921). In addition, China and Russia created the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) Company, a joint venture was carried out by the Russo-Chinese Bank, established in 1895. A supplementary agreement was added in 1898, which gave Russia permission to construct the southern part of the CER from Harbin to Port Arthur, and the right to lease the Port Arthur and the Liaodong Peninsula for a period of 25 years.*Asakawa, Kanichi, The Russo-Japanese conflict: its causes and issues, (London: A. Constable, 1905).

        Russia took a leading role by ‘mediating’ negotiations between China and Japan, and offered assistance in arranging the amount of indemnity from China, which, at that time, had no credit with foreign banks to contract loans. Sergei Witte, Russian Finance Minister, compromised resources to secure loans to China from French banks.*Participating banks included the Banque de Paris, Banque des Pays Bas, Crédit Lyonnais, and MM. Hottinger et Cie; Witte, Memoirs. Part of the indemnity was settled by the Russo-Chinese Bank, which was composed by 62.5% of French capital,*O. Crisp, ‘The Russo-Chinese Bank: an episode in Franco-Russian relations,’ in The Slavonic and East European Review, 52, 127, 1974. and partly assisted by the British-owned Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC).*H. Feis, Europe: The World's Banker, 1870-1914, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930). Germany and France also invested in the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway whose construction started in 1891.*S.G. Marks, Road to Power: the Trans-Siberian railroad and the colonization of Asian Russia 1850-1917, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991). Britain, on the other hand, did not take part in the Intervention because, according to S.C.M. Paine, it saw Japan as a putative regional partner in East Asia.*Paine, The Triple Intervention. This document reflected the serious increase in international tensions surrounding China, and its place in the international system, that led directly to conflict both within and about China. Successive concessions made by China to foreign powers helped provoke the Boxer Uprising in 1900. But Japanese resentment at the Triple Intervention soured Japanese relations with the European Great Powers involved, particularly Russia. This clearly framed a clash of interests between Japan and Russia over their relative positions in a volatile Northeast Asia. The Treaty is in Chinese and Japanese, and an English translation is also provided.

Treaty of Peace — April 17, 1895

CHINESE TEXT

大清帝國大皇帝陛下及大日本帝國大皇帝陛下為訂立和約,俾兩國及其臣民重修平和,共享幸福,且杜絕將來紛紜之端,大清帝國大皇帝陛下特簡大清帝國欽 差頭等全權大臣太子太傅文華殿大學士北洋通商大臣直隸總督一等肅毅伯爵李鴻章、大清帝國欽差全權大臣二品頂戴前出使大臣李經方、大日本帝國大皇帝陛下特簡 大日本帝國全權辦理大臣內閣總理大臣從二位勳一等伯爵伊藤博文、大日本帝國全權辦理大臣外務大臣從二位勳一等子爵陸奧宗光為全權大臣,彼此校閱所奉諭旨, 認明均屬妥善無闕。會同議定各條款,開列於左:

 第一款

中國認明朝鮮國確為完全無缺之獨立自主。故凡有虧損獨立自主體制,即如該國向中國所修貢獻典禮等,嗣後全行廢絕。

 第二款

中國將管理下開地方之權併將該地方所有堡壘、軍器、工廠及一切屬公物件,永遠讓與日本。

一、下開劃界以內之奉天省南邊地方。從鴨綠江口溯該江以抵安平河口,又從該河口劃至鳳凰城、海城及營口而止,畫成折線以南地方;所有前開各城市邑, 皆包括在劃界線內。該線抵營口之遼河後,即順流至海口止,彼此以河中心為分界。遼東灣東岸及黃海北岸在奉天省所屬諸島嶼,亦一併在所讓境內。

二、臺灣全島及所有附屬各島嶼。

三、澎湖列島。即英國格林尼次東經百十九度起、至百二十度止及北緯二十三度起、至二十四度之間諸島嶼。

 第三款

前款所載及黏附本約之地圖所劃疆界,俟本約批准互換之後,兩國應各選派官員二名以上為公同劃定疆界委員,就地踏勘確定劃界。若遇本約所訂疆界於地形或治理所關有礙難不便等情,各該委員等當妥為參酌更定。

各該委員等當從速辦理界務,以期奉委之後限一年竣事。但遇各該委員等有所更定劃界,兩國政府未經認准以前,應據本約所定劃界為正。

 第四款

中國約將庫平銀二萬萬兩交與日本,作為賠償軍費。該款分作八次交完:第一次伍千萬兩,應在本約批准互換後六個月內交清;第二次五千萬兩,應在本約批 准互換後十二個月內交清;餘款平分六次,遞年交納;其法列下:第一次平分遞年之款於兩年內交清,第二次於三年內交清,第三次於四年內交清,第四次於五年內 交清,第五次於六年內交清,第六次於七年內交清;其年分均以本約批准互換之後起算。又第一次賠款交清後,未經交完之款應按年加每百抽五之息;但無論何時將 應賠之款或全數或幾分先期交清,均聽中國之便。如從條約批准互換之日起三年之內能全數清還,除將已付利息或兩年半或不及兩年半於應付本銀扣還外,餘仍全數 免息。

 第五款

本約批准互換之後限二年之內,日本准中國讓與地方人民願遷居讓與地方之外者,任便變賣所有產業,退去界外。但限滿之後尚未遷徙者,酌宜視為日本臣民。

又臺灣一省應於本約批准互換後,兩國立即各派大員至臺灣限於本約批准互換後兩個月內交接清楚。

 第六款

中日兩國所有約章,因此次失和自屬廢絕。中國約俟本約批准互換之後,速派全權大臣與日本所派全權大臣會同訂立通商行船條約及陸路通商章程;其兩國新 訂約章,應以中國與泰西各國現行約章為本。又本約批准互換之日起、新訂約章未經實行之前,所有日本政府官吏臣民及商業、工藝、行船船隻、陸路通商等,與中 國最為優待之國禮遇護視一律無異。

中國約將下開讓與各款,從兩國全權大臣畫押蓋印日起,六個月後方可照辦。

第一、現今中國已開通商口岸之外,應准添設下開各處,立為通商口岸;以便日本臣民往來僑寓、從事商業、工藝製作。所有添設口岸,均照向開通商海口或向開內地鎮市章程一體辦理;應得優例及利益等,亦當一律享受:
一、湖北省荊州府沙市,
二、四川省重慶府,
三、江蘇省蘇州府,
四、浙江省杭州府。

日本政府得派遣領事官於前開各口駐紮。

第二、日本輪船得駛入下開各口附搭行客、裝運貨物:
一、從湖北省宜昌溯長江以至四川省重慶府,
二、從上海駛進吳淞江及運河以至蘇州府、杭州府。

中日兩國未經商定行船章程以前,上開各口行船務依外國船隻駛入中國內地水路現行章程照行。

第三、日本臣民在中國內地購買經工貨件若自生之物、或將進口商貨運往內地之時欲暫行存棧,除勿庸輸納稅鈔、派徵一切諸費外,得暫租棧房存貨。

第四、日本臣民得在中國通商口岸、城邑任便從事各項工藝製造;又得將各項機器任便裝運進口,只交所訂進口稅。

日本臣民在中國製造一切貨物,其於內地運送稅、內地稅鈔課雜派以及在中國內地沾及寄存棧房之益,即照日本臣民運入中國之貨物一體辦理;至應享優例豁除,亦莫不相同。

嗣後如有因以上加讓之事應增章程規條,即載入本款所稱之行船通商條約內。

 第七款

日本軍隊現駐中國境內者,應於本約批准互換之後三個月內撤回;但須照次款所定辦理。

 第八款

中國為保明認真實行約內所訂條款,聽允日本軍隊暫行佔守山東省威海衛。又,於中國將本約所訂第一、第二兩次賠款交清、通商行船約章亦經批准互換之 後,中國政府與日本政府確定周全妥善辦法,將通商口岸關稅作為剩款並息之抵押,日本可允撤回軍隊。倘中國政府不即確定抵押辦法,則未經交清末次賠款之前, 日本應不允撤回軍隊;但通商行船約章未經批准互換以前,雖交清賠款,日本仍不撤回軍隊。

 第九款

本約批准互換之後,兩國應將是時所有俘虜盡數交還。中國約將由日本所還俘虜並不加以虐待若或置於罪戾。

中國約將認為軍事間諜或被嫌逮繫之日本臣民,即行釋放。併約此次交仗之間所有關涉日本軍隊之中國臣民,概予寬貸;併飭有司,不得擅為逮繫。

 第十款

本約批准互換日起,應按兵息戰。

 第十一款

本約奉大清帝國大皇帝陛下及大日本帝國大皇帝陛下批准之後,定於光緒二十一年四月十四日,即明治二十八年五月初八日在煙台互換。為此,兩國全權大臣署名蓋印,以昭信守。

大清帝國欽差頭等全權大臣太子太傅文華殿大學士北洋通商大臣直隸總督一等肅毅伯爵李鴻章押。
大清帝國欽差全權大臣二品頂戴前出使大臣李經方押。
大日本帝國全權辦理大臣內閣總理大臣從二位勳一等伯爵伊藤博文押。
大日本帝國全權辦理大臣外務大臣從二位勳一等子爵陸奧宗光押。
光緒二十一年三月二十三日
明治二十八年四月十七日

訂於下之關,繕寫兩分

另約

 第一款

遵和約第八款所訂暫為駐守威海衛之日本國軍隊,應不越一旅團之多,所有暫行駐守需費,中國自本約批准互換之日起,每一周年屆滿,貼交四分之一,庫平銀五十萬兩。

 第二款

在威海衛應將劉公島及威海衛口灣沿岸,照日本國里法五里以內地方,約合中國四十里以內,為日本國軍隊駐守之區。

在距上開劃界,照日本國里法五里以內地方,無論其為何處,中國軍隊不宜偪近或紮駐,以杜生衅之端。

 第三款

日本國軍隊所駐地方治理之務,仍歸中國官員管理。但遇有日本國軍隊司令官為軍隊衛養、安寧、軍紀及分布、管理等事必須施行之處,一經出示頒行,則於中國官員亦當責守。

在日本國軍隊駐守之地,凡有犯關涉軍務之罪,均歸日本國軍務官審斷辦理。

此另約所定條款,與載入和約其效悉為相同。為此兩國全權大臣署名蓋印,以昭信守。

光緒二十一年三月二十三日
明治二十八年四月十七日

訂於下之關,繕寫兩分


JAPANESE TEXT

大日本國皇帝陛下及大淸國皇帝陛下ハ兩國及其ノ臣民ニ平和ノ幸福ヲ囘復シ且將來紛議ノ端ヲ除クコトヲ欲シ媾和條約ヲ訂結スル爲メニ大日本國皇帝陛下ハ内閣總理大臣從二位勳一等伯爵伊藤博文外務大臣從二位勳一等子爵陸奧宗光ヲ大淸國皇帝陛下ハ太子太傅文華殿大學士北洋大臣直隸總督一等肅毅伯李鴻章二品頂戴前出使大臣李經方ヲ各其ノ全權大臣ニ任命セリ因テ各全權大臣ハ互ニ其ノ委任状ヲ示シ其ノ良好妥當ナルヲ認メ以テ左ノ諸條款ヲ協議決定セリ

第一條

淸國ハ朝鮮國ノ完全無缺ナル獨立自主ノ國タルコトヲ確認ス因テ右獨立自主ヲ損害スヘキ朝鮮國ヨリ淸國ニ對スル貢獻典禮等ハ將來全ク之ヲ廢止スヘシ

第二條

淸國ハ左記ノ土地ノ主權竝ニ該地方ニ在ル城壘兵器製造所及官有物ヲ永遠日本國ニ割與ス

  一 左ノ經界内ニ在ル奉天省南部ノ地

     鴨緑江口ヨリ該江ヲ溯リ安平河口ニ至リ該河口ヨリ鳳凰城海城營口ニ亘リ遼河口ニ至ル折線以南ノ地併セテ前記ノ各城市ヲ包含ス而シテ遼河ヲ以テ界トスル處ハ該河ノ中央ヲ以テ經界トスルコトト知ルヘシ

     遼東灣東岸及黄海北岸ニ在テ奉天省ニ屬スル諸島嶼

  二 臺灣全島及其ノ附屬諸島嶼

  三 澎湖列島即英國「グリーンウィチ」東經百十九度乃至百二十度及北緯二十三度乃至二十四度ノ間ニ在ル諸島嶼

第三條

前條ニ掲載シ附屬地圖ニ示ス所ノ經界線ハ本約批准交換後直チニ日淸兩國ヨリ各二名以上ノ境界共同劃定委員ヲ任命シ實地ニ就テ確定スル所アルヘキモノトス而シテ若本約ニ掲記スル所ノ境界ニシテ地形上又ハ施政上ノ點ニ付完全ナラサルニ於テハ該境界劃定委員ハ之ヲ更正スルコトニ任スヘシ

該境界劃定委員ハ成ルヘク速ニ其ノ任務ニ從事シ其ノ任命後一箇年以内ニ之ヲ終了スヘシ

但シ該境界劃定委員ニ於テ更定スル所アルニ當リテ其ノ更定シタル所ニ對シ日淸兩國政府ニ於テ可認スル迄ハ本約ニ掲記スル所ノ經界線ヲ維持スヘシ

第四條

淸國ハ軍費賠償金トシテ庫平銀貳億兩ヲ日本國ニ支拂フヘキコトヲ約ス右金額ハ都合八囘ニ分チ初囘及次囘ニハ毎囘五千萬兩ヲ支拂フヘシ而シテ初囘ノ拂込ハ本約批准交換後六箇月以内ニ次囘ノ拂込ハ本約批准交換後十二箇月以内ニ於テスヘシ殘リノ金額ハ六箇年賦ニ分チ其ノ第一次ハ本約批准交換後二箇年以内ニ其ノ第二次ハ本約批准交換後三箇年以内ニ其ノ第三次ハ本約批准交換後四箇年以内ニ其ノ第四次ハ本約批准交換後五箇年以内ニ其ノ第五次ハ本約批准交換後六箇年以内ニ其ノ第六次ハ本約批准交換後七箇年以内ニ支拂フヘシ又初囘拂込ノ期日ヨリ以後未タ拂込ヲ了ラサル額ニ對シテハ毎年百分ノ五ノ利子ヲ支拂フヘキモノトス

但シ淸國ハ何時タリトモ該賠償金ノ全額或ハ其ノ幾分ヲ前以テ一時ニ支拂フコトヲ得ヘシ如シ本約批准交換後三箇年以内ニ該賠償金ノ總額ヲ皆濟スルトキハ總テ利子ヲ免除スヘシ若夫迄ニ二箇年半若ハ更ニ短期ノ利子ヲ拂込ミタルモノアルトキハ之ヲ元金ニ編入スヘシ

第五條

日本國ヘ割與セラレタル地方ノ住民ニシテ右割與セラレタル地方ノ外ニ住居セムト欲スル者ハ自由ニ其ノ所有不動産ヲ賣却シテ退去スルコトヲ得ヘシ其ノ爲メ本約批准交換ノ日ヨリ二箇年間ヲ猶豫スヘシ但シ右年限ノ滿チタルトキハ未タ該地方ヲ去ラサル住民ヲ日本國ノ都合ニヨリ日本國臣民ト視爲スコトアルヘシ

日淸兩國政府ハ本約批准交換後直チニ各一名以上ノ委員ヲ臺灣省ヘ派遣シ該省ノ受渡ヲ爲スヘシ而シテ本約批准交換後二箇月以内ニ右受渡ヲ完了スヘシ

第六條

日淸兩國間ノ一切ノ條約ハ交戰ノ爲メ消滅シタレハ淸國ハ本約批准交換ノ後速ニ全權委員ヲ任命シ日本國全權委員ト通商航海條約及陸路交通貿易ニ關スル約定ヲ締結スヘキコトヲ約ス而シテ現ニ淸國ト歐洲各國トノ間ニ存在スル諸條約章程ヲ以テ該日淸兩國間諸條約ノ基礎ト爲スヘシ又本約批准交換ノ日ヨリ該諸條約ノ實施ニ至ル迄ハ淸國ハ日本國政府官吏商業航海陸路交通貿易工業船舶及臣民ニ對シ總テ最惠國待遇ヲ與フヘシ

淸國ハ右ノ外左ノ讓與ヲ爲シ而シテ該讓與ハ本約調印ノ日ヨリ六箇月ノ後有效ノモノトス

 第一 淸國ニ於テ現ニ各外國ニ向テ開キ居ル所ノ各市港ノ外ニ日本國臣民ノ商業住居工業及製造業ノ爲メニ左ノ市港ヲ開クヘシ但シ現ニ淸國ノ開市場開港場ニ行ハルル所ト同一ノ條件ニ於テ同一ノ特典及便益ヲ享有スヘキモノトス

     一 湖北省荊州府沙市

     二 四川省重慶府

     三 江蘇省蘇州府

     四 浙江省杭州府

    日本國政府ハ以上列記スル所ノ市港中何レノ處ニモ領事官ヲ置クノ權利アルモノトス

 第二 旅客及貨物運送ノ爲メ日本國汽舩ノ航路ヲ左記ノ場所ニ迄擴張スヘシ

     一 楊子江上流湖北省宜昌ヨリ四川省重慶ニ至ル

     二 上海ヨリ呉淞江及運河ニ入リ蘇州杭州ニ至ル

    日淸兩國ニ於テ新章程ヲ妥定スル迄ハ前記航路ニ關シ適用シ得ヘキ限ハ外國船舶淸國内地水路航行ニ關スル現行章程ヲ施行スヘシ

 第三 日本國臣民カ淸國内地ニ於テ貨品及生産物ヲ購買シ又ハ其ノ輸入シタル商品ヲ淸國内地ヘ運送スルニハ右購買品又ハ運送品ヲ倉入スル爲メ何等ノ税金取立金ヲモ納ムルコトナク一時倉庫ヲ借入ルルノ權利ヲ有スヘシ

 第四 日本國臣民ハ淸國各開市場開港場ニ於テ自由ニ各種ノ製造業ニ從事スルコトヲ得ヘク又所定ノ輸入税ヲ拂フノミニテ自由ニ各種ノ器械類ヲ淸國ヘ輸入スルコトヲ得ヘシ

    淸國ニ於ケル日本臣民ノ製造ニ係ル一切ノ貨品ハ各種ノ内國運送税内地税賦課金取立金ニ關シ又淸國内地ニ於ケル倉入上ノ便益ニ關シ日本國臣民カ淸國ヘ輸入シタル商品ト同一ノ取扱ヲ受ケ且同一ノ特典免除ヲ享有スヘキモノトス

此等ノ讓與ニ關シ更ニ章程ヲ規定スルコトヲ要スル場合ニハ之ヲ本條ニ規定スル所ノ通商航海條約中ニ具載スヘキモノトス

第七條

現ニ淸國版圖内ニ在ル日本國軍隊ノ撤囘ハ本約批准交換後三箇月内ニ於テスヘシ但シ次條ニ載スル所ノ規定ニ從フヘキモノトス

第八條

淸國ハ本約ノ規定ヲ誠實ニ施行スヘキ擔保トシテ日本國軍隊ノ一時山東省威海衞ヲ占領スルコトヲ承諾ス而シテ本約ニ規定シタル軍費賠償金ノ初囘次囘ノ拂込ヲ了リ通商航海條約ノ批准交換ヲ了リタル時ニ當リテ淸國政府ニテ右賠償金ノ殘額ノ元利ニ對シ充分適當ナル取極ヲ立テ淸國海關税ヲ以テ抵當ト爲スコトヲ承諾スルニ於テハ日本國ハ其ノ軍隊ヲ前記ノ場所ヨリ撤囘スヘシ若又之ニ關シ充分適當ナル取極立タサル場合ニハ該賠償金ノ最終囘ノ拂込ヲ了リタル時ニ非サレハ撤囘セサルヘシ尤通商航海條約ノ批准交換ヲ了リタル後ニ非サレハ軍隊ノ撤囘ヲ行ハサルモノト承知スヘシ

第九條

本約批准交換ノ上ハ直チニ其ノ時現ニ有ル所ノ俘虜ヲ還附スヘシ而シテ淸國ハ日本國ヨリ斯ク還附セラレタル所ノ俘虜ヲ虐待若ハ處刑セサルヘキコトヲ約ス

日本國臣民ニシテ軍事上ノ間諜若ハ犯罪者ト認メラレタルモノハ淸國ニ於テ直チニ解放スヘキコトヲ約シ淸國ハ又交戰中日本國軍隊ト種種ノ關係ヲ有シタル淸國臣民ニ對シ如何ナル處刑ヲモ爲サス又之ヲ爲サシメサルコトヲ約ス

第十條

本約批准交換ノ日ヨリ攻戰ヲ止息スヘシ

第十一條

本約ハ大日本國皇帝陛下及大淸國皇帝陛下ニ於テ批准セラルヘク而シテ右批准ハ芝罘ニ於テ明治二十八年五月八日即光緒二十一年四月十四日ニ交換セラルヘシ

右證據トシテ兩帝國全權大臣ハ茲ニ記名調印スルモノナリ

 明治二十八年四月十七日即光緒二十一年三月二十三日下ノ關ニ於テ二通ヲ作ル

          大日本帝國全權辨理大臣 内閣總理大臣從二位勳一等伯爵 伊藤博文 印

          大日本帝國全權辨理大臣 外務大臣  從二位勳一等子爵 陸奧宗光 印

          大淸帝國欽差頭等全權大臣太子太傅文華殿大學士北洋大臣直隸總督一等肅毅伯 李鴻章 印

          大淸帝國欽差全權大臣  二品頂戴前出使大臣 李經方 印

別約

第一條 
本日調印シタル媾和條約第八條ノ規定ニ依リテ一時威海衛ヲ占領スヘキ日本國軍隊ハ一旅團ヲ超過セサルヘシ而シテ該條約批准交換ノ日ヨリ清國ハ毎年右一時占領ニ關スル費用ノ四分ノ一庫平銀五十萬兩ヲ支拂フヘシ

第二條 
威海衛ニ於ケル一時占領地ハ劉公嶋及威海衛灣ノ全沿岸ヨリ日本里數五里ヲ以テ其ノ區域ト爲スヘシ

右一時占領地ノ經界線ヲ距ルコト日本里數五里ノ地内ニ在リテハ何レノ所タリトモ清國軍隊ノ之ニ近ツキ若ハ之ヲ占領スルコトヲ許ササルヘシ

第三條 
一時占領地ノ行政事務ハ仍ホ清國官吏ノ管理ニ歸スルモノトス但シ清國官吏ハ常ニ日本國占領軍司令官カ其ノ軍隊ノ健康安全紀律ニ關シ又ハ之カ維持配置上ニ付必要ト認メ發スル所ノ命令ニ服從スヘキ義務アルモノトス

一時占領地内ニ於テ犯シタル一切ノ軍事上ノ罪科ハ日本國軍務官ノ裁判管轄ニ屬スルモノトス

此ノ別約ハ本日調印シタル媾和條約中ニ悉ク記入シタルト同一效力ヲ有スルモノトス

右證據トシテ兩帝国全權大臣ハ之ニ記名調印スルモノナリ

明治二十八年四月十七日即光緒二十一年三月二十三日下ノ關ニ於テ二通ヲ作ル

          大日本帝國全權辨理大臣 内閣總理大臣從二位勳一等伯爵 伊藤博文 印

          大日本帝國全權辨理大臣 外務大臣  從二位勳一等子爵 陸奧宗光 印

          大淸帝國欽差頭等全權大臣太子太傅文華殿大學士北洋大臣直隸總督一等肅毅伯 李鴻章 印

          大淸帝國欽差全權大臣  二品頂戴前出使大臣 李經方 印


TRANSLATION

His Majesty the Emperor of Japan and His Majesty the Emperor of China, desiring to restore the blessings of peace to their countries and subjects and to remove all cause for future complications, have named as their Plenipotentiaries for the purpose of concluding a Treaty of Peace, that is to say:

        His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, Count Ito Hirobumi, Junii, Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of Paullownia, Minister President of State; and Viscount Munemitsu, Junii, First Class of the Imperial Order of the Sacred Treasure, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs;

        And His Majesty the Emperor of China, Li Hung-chang, Senior Tutor to the Heir Apparent, Senior Grand Secretary of State, Minister Superintendent of Trade for the Northern Ports of China, Viceroy of the province of Chihli, and Earl of the First Rank; and Li Ching-fong, Ex-Minister of the Diplomatic Service, of the Second Official Rank:

        Who, after having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in good and proper form, have agreed to the following Articles: —

Article I.

        China recognises definitively the full and complete independence and autonomy of Corea, and, in consequence, the payment of tribute and the performance of ceremonies and formalities by Corea to China, in derogation of such independence and autonomy, shall wholly cease for the future.

Article II.

        China cedes to Japan in perpetuity and full sovereignty the following territories, together with all fortifications, arsenals, and public property thereon: —

        (a.)  The southern portion of the province of Feng-tien within the following boundaries:

        The line of demarcation begins at the mouth of the River Yalu and ascends that stream to the mouth of the River An-ping, from thence the line runs to Feng-huang, from thence to Hai-cheng, from thence to Ying-kow, forming a line which describes the southern portion of the territory.  The places above named are included in the ceded territory.  When the line reaches the River Liao at Ying-kow, it follows the course of that stream to its mouth, where it terminates.  The mid-channel of the River Liao shall be taken as the line of demarcation.

        This cession also includes all islands appertaining or belonging to the said province of Feng-tien situated in the eastern portion of the Bay of Liao-tung and in the northern part of the Yellow Sea.

        (b.)  The island of Formosa, together with all islands appertaining or belonging to the said island of Formosa.

        (c.)  The Pescadores Group, that is to say, all islands lying between the 119th and 120th degrees of longitude east of Greenwich and the 23rd and 24th degrees of north latitude.

Article III.

        The alignment of the frontiers described in the preceding Article, and shown on the annexed map, shall be subject to verification and demarcation on the spot by a Joint Commission of Delimitation, consisting of two or more Japanese and two or more Chinese delegates, to be appointed immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of this Act.  In case the boundaries laid down in this Act are found to be defective at any point, either on account of topography or in consideration of good administration, it shall also be the duty of the Delimitation Commission to rectify the same.

        The Delimitation Commission will enter upon its duties as soon as possible, and will bring its labours to a conclusion within the period of one year after appointment.

        The alignments laid down in this Act shall, however, be maintained until the rectifications of the Delimitation Commission, if any are made, shall have received the approval of the Governments of Japan and China.

Article IV.

        China agrees to pay to Japan as a war indemnity the sum of 200,000,000 Kuping taels; the said sum to be paid in eight instalments.  The first instalment of 50,000,000 taels to be paid within six months, and the second instalment of 50,000,000 taels to be paid within twelve months, after the exchange of the ratifications of this Act.  The remaining sum to be paid in six equal annual instalments, as follows: the first of such equal annual instalments to be paid within two years, the second within three years, the third within four years, the fourth within five years, the fifth within six years, and the sixth within seven years, after the exchange of the ratifications of this Act.  Interest at the rate of 5 per centum per annum shall begin to run on all unpaid portions of the said indemnity from the date the first instalment falls due.

        China shall, however, have the right to pay by anticipation at any time any or all of said instalments.  In case the whole amount of the said indemnity is paid within three years after the exchange of the ratifications of the present Act, all interest shall be waived, and the interest for two years and a half or for any less period, if then already paid, shall be included as a part of the principal amount of the indemnity.

Article V.

        The inhabitants of the territories ceded to Japan who wish to take up their residence outside the ceded districts shall be at liberty to sell their real property and retire.  For this purpose a period of two years from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present Act shall be granted.  At the expiration of that period those of the inhabitants who shall not have left such territories shall, at the option of Japan, be deemed to be Japanese subjects.

        Each of the two Governments shall, immediately upon the exchange of the ratifications of the present Act, send one or more Commissioners to Formosa to effect a final transfer of that province, and within the space of two months after the exchange of the ratifications of this Act such transfer shall be completed.

Article VI.

        All Treaties between Japan and China having come to an end in consequence of war, China engages immediately upon the exchange of the ratifications of this Act, to appoint Plenipotentiaries to conclude, with the Japanese Plenipotentiaries, a Treaty of Commerce and Navigation and a Convention to regulate Frontier Intercourse and Trade.  The Treaties, Conventions, and Regulations now subsisting between China and European Powers shall serve as a basis for the said Treaty and Convention between Japan and China.  From the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this Act until the said Treaty and Convention are brought into actual operation, the Japanese Government, its officials, commerce, navigation, frontier intercourse and trade, industries, ships, and subjects, shall in every respect be accorded by China most favoured nation treatment.

        China makes, in addition, the following concessions, to take effect six months after the date of the present Act: —

        1st. — The following cities, towns, and ports, in addition to those already opened, shall be opened to the trade, residence, industries, and manufactures of Japanese subjects, under the same conditions and with the same privileges and facilities as exist at the present open cities, towns, and ports of China:

            1.  Shashih, in the province of Hupeh.

            2.  Chungking, in the province of Szechwan.

            3.  Suchow, in the province of Kiangsu.

            4.  Hangchow, in the province of Chekiang.

        The Japanese Government shall have the right to station Consuls at any or all of the above-named places.

        2nd. — Steam navigation for vessels under the Japanese flag, for the conveyance of passengers and cargo, shall be extended to the following places:

            1.  On the Upper Yangtze River, from Ichang to Chungking.

            2.  On the Woosung River and the Canal, from Shanghai to Suchow and Hangchow.

        The rules and regulations which now govern the navigation of the inland waters of China by Foreign vessels shall, so far as applicable, be enforced, in respect of the above-named routes, until new rules and regulations are conjointly agreed to.

        3rd. — Japanese subjects purchasing goods or produce in the interior of China, or transporting imported merchandise into the interior of China, shall have the right temporarily to rent or hire warehouses for the storage of the articles so purchased or transported without the payment of any taxes or exactions whatever.

        4th. — Japanese subjects shall be free to engage in all kinds of manufacturing industries in all the open cities, towns, and ports of China, and shall be at liberty to import into China all kinds of machinery, paying only the stipulated import duties thereon.

        All articles manufactured by Japanese subjects in China shall, in respect of inland transit and internal taxes, duties, charges, and exactions of all kinds, and also in respect of warehousing and storage facilities in the interior of China, stand upon the same footing and enjoy the same privileges and exemptions as merchandise imported by Japanese subjects into China.

        In the event additional rules and regulations are necessary in connexion with these concessions, they shall be embodied in the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation provided for in this Article.

Article VII.

        Subject to the provisions of the next succeeding Article, the evacuation of China by the armies of Japan shall be completely effected within three months after the exchange of the ratifications of the present Act.

Article VIII.

        As a guarantee of the faithful performance of the stipulations of this Act, China consents to the temporary occupation by the military forces of Japan of Weihaiwei, in the province of Shantung.

        Upon the payment of the first two instalments of the war indemnity herein stipulated for and the exchange of the ratifications of the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation, the said place shall be evacuated by the Japanese forces, provided the Chinese Government consents to pledge, under suitable and sufficient arrangements, the Customs revenue of China as security for the payment of the principal and interest of the remaining instalments of said indemnity.  In the event no such arrangements are concluded, such evacuation shall only take place upon the payment of the final instalment of said indemnity.

        It is, however, expressly understood that no such evacuation shall take place until after the exchange of the ratifications of the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation.

Article IX.

        Immediately upon the exchange of the ratifications of this Act, all prisoners of war then held shall be restored, and China undertakes not to ill-treat or punish prisoners of war restored to her by Japan.  China also engages to at once release all Japanese subjects accused of being military spies or charged with any other military offences.  China further engages not to punish in any manner, nor to allow to be punished, those Chinese subjects who have in any manner been compromised in their relations with the Japanese army during the war.

Article X.

        All offensive military operations shall cease upon the exchange of the ratifications of this Act.

Article XI.

        The present Act shall be ratified by Their Majesties the Emperor of Japan and the Emperor of China, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Chefoo on the 8th day of the 5th month of the 28th year of Meiji, corresponding to 14th day of the 4th month of the 21st year of Kuang Hsü.

        In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.

        Done at Shimonoseki, in duplicate, this 17th day of the 4th month of the 28th year of Meiji, corresponding to 23rd day of the 3rd month of the 21st year of Kuang Hsü.

Count ITO HIROBUMI,                        [L.S.]

      Junii, Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of Paullownia, Minister President of State, Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan. 

Viscount MUTSU MUNEMITSU,            [L.S.]

      Junii, First Class of the Imperial Order of the Sacred Treasure, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan. 

LI HUNG-CHANG,            [L.S.]

      Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of China, Senior Tutor to the Heir Apparent, Senior Grand Secretary of State, Minister Superintendent of Trade for the Northern Ports of China, Viceroy of the province of Chihli, and Earl of the First Rank.

LI CHING-FONG,

      Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of China, Ex-Minister of the Diplomatic Service, of the Second Official Rank.

 

SEPARATE ARTICLES

Article I.

        The Japanese military forces which are, under Article VIII of the Treaty of Peace signed this day, to temporarily occupy Weihaiwei shall not exceed one brigade, and from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the said Treaty of Peace China shall pay annually one-fourth of the amount of the expenses of such temporary occupation, that is to say, at the rate of 500,000 Kuping taels per annum.

Article II.

        The territory temporarily occupied at Weihaiwei shall comprise the island of Liu-kung and a belt of land 5 Japanese ri  wide along the entire coast-line of the Bay of Weihaiwei.

        No Chinese troops shall be permitted to approach or occupy any places within a zone 5 Japanese ri  wide beyond the boundaries of the occupied territory.

Article III.

        The civil administration of the occupied territory shall remain in the hands of the Chinese authorities.  But such authorities shall at all times be obliged to conform to the orders which the Commander of the Japanese army of occupation may deem it necessary to give in the interest of the health, maintenance, safety, distribution, or discipline of the troops.

        All military offences committed within the occupied territory shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Japanese military authorities.

        The foregoing Separate Articles shall have the same force, value, and effect as if they had been word for word inserted in the Treaty of Peace signed this day.

        In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same and affixed thereto the seal of their arms.

        Done at Shimonoseki, in duplicate, this 17th day of the 4th month of the 28th year of Meiji, corresponding to the 23rd day of the 3rd month of the 21st year of Kuang Hsü.

 Count ITO HIROBUMI,                        [L.S.]

      Junii, Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of Paullownia, Minister President of State, Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan. 

Viscount MUTSU MUNEMITSU,            [L.S.]

      Junii, First Class of the Imperial Order of the Sacred Treasure, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan. 

LI HUNG-CHANG,            [L.S.]

      Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of China, Senior Tutor to the Heir Apparent, Senior Grand Secretary of State, Minister Superintendent of Trade for the Northern Ports of China, Viceroy of the province of Chihli, and Earl of the First Rank.

LI CHING-FONG,

      Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of China, Ex-Minister of the Diplomatic Service, of the Second Official Rank.


Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of International Law. Korea: Treaties and Agreements. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1921. pp. 11-19.

Annotated by Miriam Kaminishi