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The Sino-Japanese Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Treaty, 1871

This was the first formal treaty signed between Japan and an Asian country in the modern era.*Japanese and Chinese merchants were already developing private business during the Tokugawa-Bakufu regime that was well known for the state of seclusion (sakoku) regarding foreigners. Yet, both countries had no formal institutionalized diplomatic relationship. Besides China, Japan maintained relationships with Korea (formal diplomatic), the Ryukyus and the Netherlands during the same period. T. Kazui, S.D. Videen, ‘Foreign Relations during the Edo Period: Sakoku Reexamined,’ Journal of Japanese Studies, 8, 2, 1982, 283-306. It followed a series of treaties between Japan and Western Powers from 1854, the consequence of Japan being compelled by force majeure to open its ports for trade.*For further details on treaties signed by Japan, see M.R. Auslin, Negotiating with Imperialism: the unequal treaties and the culture of Japanese diplomacy, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004). The treaty with the Qing Empire was signed by Li Hongzhang and Date Munenari on September 13, 1871. It terms were to reinforce friendly relations, cooperation and the policy of mutual non-intervention in internal affairs, while also recognizing consular jurisdiction in both states. Besides the 18 main articles, the Treaty included special sections regulating Commerce and Maritime Customs Law. The Trade Regulation specified the ports to be open in both countries (8 ports in Japan and 15 in China),*The ports in Japan: Yokohama, Hakodate, Osaka, Kobe, two ports in Niigata, Nagasaki, and Tsukiji. The ports in China: Shanghai, Zhenjiang, Ningbo, Jiujiang, Hnakou, Tianjin, Yingkou, Zhifu, Guangzhou, Shantou, Qiongzhou, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Taiwan, and Danshui. as well as the rules to be followed in the ports. The Maritime Customs Law described in detail goods, weight, measures and tariff rates to be charged. There were more than 89 items from Japan and also 55 from China with specific volume and tax to be applied, as well as goods described as duty-free. Trade between both countries was then conducted in terms of silver and the majority of the products were related to agricultural commodities. Yet there were also manufactured goods, especially textiles. However, unlike the Treaties conducted in the same period by Western Powers with Japan, well known as the “unequal treaties”, this document indicated Japanese willingness to accept a quite balanced treaty with China; Japan did not even claim the status of most-favored nation, a typical clause in a trade agreement between parties not really equal in economic power. That development only unfolded in 1895, after the First Sino-Japanese War. This document therefore indicates an early sense of parity between Meiji Japan and Qing China. The Treaty was written in Chinese and Japanese.

Treaty of Tientsin — September 13, 1871

CHINESE TEXT

一八七一年九月十三日,同治十年七月二十九日,明治四年七月二十九日,天津。

大清國、大日本國素敦友誼,歷有年所,茲欲同修舊好,益固邦交,是以

大清國欽差全權大臣辦理通商事務太子太保協辦大學士兵部尚書直隸總督部堂一等肅毅伯李;

大日本國欽差全權大臣從二位大藏兒兒卿伊達;

各遵所奉諭旨,公同會議訂立修好條規,以期彼此信守,歷久弗渝。所有議定各條開列於左:

第一條
嗣後大清國、大日本國被敦和誼,與天壤無窮。即兩國所屬邦土,亦各以禮相待,不可稍有侵越,俾獲​​永久安全。

第二條
兩國既經通好,自必互相關切。若他國偶有不公及輕藐之事,一經知照,必須彼此相助,或從中善為調處,以敦友誼。

第三條
兩國政事禁令,各有異同,其政事應聽己國自主,彼此均不得代謀干預,強請開辦。其禁令亦應互相為助,各飭商民,不准誘惑土人稍有違犯。

第四條
兩國均可派秉權大臣,並攜帶眷屬隨員,駐紮京師。或長行居住,或隨時往來,經過內地各處,所有費用均係自備。其租賃地基房屋作為大臣等公館,並行李往來及專差送文等事,均須妥為照料。

第五條
兩國官員雖有定品,授職各異。如彼此執掌相等,會晤移文,均用平行之禮。職卑者與上官相見,則行客禮。遇有公務,則照會執掌相等之官轉申,無須徑達。如相拜會,則各用官位名帖。凡兩國派員初到任所,須將印文送驗,以杜假冒。

第六條
嗣後兩國往來公文,中國用漢文,日本國用日本文,須副以譯漢文,或只用漢文,亦從其便。

第七條
兩國既經通好,所有沿海各口岸,彼此均應指定處所,準聽商民來往貿易,並另立通商章程,以便兩國商民永遠遵守。

第八條
兩國指定各口,彼此均可設理事官,約束己國商民。凡交涉財產詞訟案件,皆歸審理,各按己國律例核辦。兩國商民彼此互相控訴,俱用禀呈。理事官應先為勸息,使不成訟。如或不能,則照會地方官會同公平訊段。其竊盜逋欠等案,兩國地方官只能查拿追辦,不能代償。

第九條
兩國指定各口倘未設理事官,其貿易人民均歸地方官約束照管。如犯罪名,準一面查拿,一面將案情知照附近各口理事官,按律科斷。

第十條
兩國官商在指定各口,均準僱傭本地民人服役工作,管理貿易等事,其雇主應隨時約束,勿任藉端欺人,猶不可偏聽私言,致令生事。如有犯案,準由各地方官查拿訊辦,雇主不得徇私。

第十一條
兩國商民在指定各口,彼此往來,各宜友愛,不得攜帶刀械,違者議罰,刀械入官。並須各安本分。無論居住久暫,均聽己國理事官管轄。不准改換衣冠,入籍考試,致滋冒混。

第十二條
此國人民因犯此國法禁,隱匿彼國公署商船行棧,及潛逃彼國各處者,一經此國官查明照會彼國官,即應設法查拿,不得徇縱。其拿獲解送時,沿途給予衣食,不可凌虐。

第十三條
兩國人民如有在指定口岸,勾結強徒為盜為匪,或潛入內地,防火殺人搶劫者,其在各口由地方官一面自行嚴捕,一面將案情飛知理事官,倘敢用凶器拒捕,均準格殺勿論。惟須將致殺情跡會同理事官查驗。如事發內地不及查驗者,即由地方官將實在情由照會理事官查照。其拿獲到案者,在各口由地方官會同理事官審辦。在內地即由地方官自行審辦,將案情照會理事官查照。倘此國人民在彼國聚眾滋擾,數在十人以外,及誘結通謀彼國人民作害地方情事,應聽彼國官徑行查拿。其在各口者知照理事官會審,其在內地者,由地方官審實,​​照會理事官查照,均在刑事地方正法。

第十四條
兩國兵船往來指定各口,係為保護己國商民起見。凡沿海未經指定口岸,以及內地河湖支港,概不准駛入,違者截留議罰,惟因遭風避險收口者,不在此例。

第十五條
嗣後兩國倘有與別國用兵事情事,應防各口岸,一經不知,便應暫停貿易及船隻出入,免致誤有傷損,其平時日本人在中國指定口岸及附近洋面,中國人在日本指定口岸及附近洋面,均不准與不和之國互相爭鬥搶劫。

第十六條
兩國理事官均不得兼作貿易,亦不准兼攝無約各國理事。如辦事不和眾心,確有實據,彼此均可行文知照秉權大臣,查明撤回,免因一人僨事,致傷兩國友誼。

第十七條
兩國船隻旗號,各有定式,倘彼國船隻假冒此國旗號,私作不法情事,貨船均罰入官,如查系官為發給,即行參撤。至兩國書籍,彼此如願誦習,應準互相採買。

第十八條
兩國議定條規,均係預為防範,俾免歐生嫌隙,以盡講信修好之道。為此兩國欽差全權大臣先行畫押蓋印,用昭憑信,俟兩國御筆批准互換後,即刊刻通行各處,使彼此官民咸知遵守,永以為好。

同治十年辛未七月二十九日

明治四年七月二十九日

JAPANESE TEXT

明治4年(1871)7月29日調印

大日本国と大清国は、古来友誼敦厚なるを以て、
今般一同旧交を修め、益邦交を固くせんと欲し、
大日本国 欽差全権大臣従二位大蔵卿伊達(宗城)
大清国 欽差全権大臣弁理通商事務太子太保協弁大学士兵部尚書直隷総督部堂一等肅毅伯李(鴻章)
各奉じたる上諭の旨に遵い、公同会議し修好条規を定め、以て双方信守し久遠替らざることを期す。其議定せし各条左の如し。

  第一条
此後
大日本国と 大清国は、弥和誼を敦くし、天地と共に窮まり無るべし。又両国に属したる邦土も各礼を以て相待ち、聊侵越することなく、永久安全を得せしむべし。

  第二条
両国、好みを通せし上は、必ず相関切す。若し他国より不公及び軽藐すること有る時、其知らせを為さば、何れも互に相助け、或は中に入り、程克く取扱い、交誼を敦くすべし。

  第三条
両国の政事禁令各異なれば、其政事は己国自主の権に任すべし。彼此に於て、何れも代謀干預して禁じたることを取り行わんと請い願うことを得ず。其禁令は互に相助け、各其商民に諭し、土人を誘惑し聊か違犯有るを許さず。

  第四条
両国、秉権大臣を差出し、其眷属随員を召具して京師に在留し、或は長く居留し、或は時々往来し、内地各所を通行することを得べし。其入費は何れも自分より払うべし。其地面家宅を賃借して大臣等の公館と為し、並に行李の往来及び飛脚の仕立書状を送る等のことは何れも不都合なき様世話いたすべし。

  第五条
両国の官位何れも定品有りといえども、職を授ること各同からず。因て彼此の職掌相当する者は、応接及び文通とも均く対待の礼を用ゆ。職卑き者と上官と相見るには客礼を行い、公務を弁ずるに付ては職掌相当の官へ照会して其上官へ転申し、直達することを得ず。又、双方礼式の出会には各官位の名帖を用ゆ。凡、両国より差出したる官員初て任所に到着せば、印章ある書付を出し見せ、仮冐なき様の防ぎをなすべし。

  第六条
此後両国往復する公文、大清は漢文を用い、大日本は日本文を用い、漢訳文を副うべし。或は只漢文のみを用い其便に従う。

  第七条
両国、好みを通ぜし上は、海岸の各港に於て彼此共に場所を指定して商民の往来貿易を許すべし。猶別に通商章程を立て、両国の商民に永遠遵守せしむべし。

  第八条
両国の開港場には彼此何れも理事官を差置き、自国章民の取締をなすべし。凡、家財、産業、公事、訴訟に干係せし事件は、都て其裁判に帰し、何れも自国の律例を按じて糺弁すべし。両国商民相互の訴訟には何れも願書体を用ゆ。理事官は先ず理解を加え、成る丈け訴訟に及ばざる様にすべし。其儀能わざる時は、地方官に掛合い、双方出会し、公平に裁断すべし。尤、盗賊、欠落等の事件は両国地方官より召捕り吟味取上げ方致す而已にして、官より償うことはなさゞるべし。

  第九条
両国の開港場に、若し未だ理事官を置ざる時は、其人民貿易何れも地方官より取締り世話すべし。若し罪科を犯さば本人を捕えて吟味を遂げ、其事情を最寄開港場の理事官へ掛合い、律を照して裁断すべし。

  第十条
両国の官吏商人は諸開港場に於て何れも其地の民人を雇い、雑役手代等に用ること勝手に為べし。尤、其雇主より時々取締を為し、事に寄せ人を欺くことなからしめ、別して其私言を偏聴して事を生ぜしむべからず。若し犯罪の者有らば、其地方官より召捕り糺弁するに任せ、雇主より庇うことを得ず。

  第十一条
両国の商民、諸開港場にて彼此往来するに付ては互に友愛すべし。刀剣類を携帯することを得ず。違う者は罰を行い、刀剣は官に取上ぐべし。又何れも其本文を守り、永住暫居の差別無く必ず自国理事官の支配に従うべし。衣冠を替え改め、其他の人別に入り、官途に就き、紛わしき儀有ることを許さず。

  第十二条
此国の人民、此国の法度を犯せんこと有て、彼国の役所、商船、会社等の内に隠し忍び、或は彼国各処に遁げ潜み居る者を、此国の官より査明して掛合越さば、彼国の官にて早速召捕りらえ見遁すことを得ず。囚人を引送る時の途中、衣食を与え凌虐すべからず。

  第十三条
両国の人民、若し開港場に於て兇徒を語合い盗賊悪事をなし、或は内地に潜み入り、火を付け、人を殺し、劫奪を為す者有らば、各港にては地方官より厳く捕え直に其次第を理事官に知らすべし。若し兇器を用て手向いせば、何れに於ても格殺して論なかるべし。併し之を殺せし事情は、理事官と出会して、一同に査験すべし。若し其事内地に発りて理事官自ら赴き査験すること届きかぬる時は、其地方官より実在の情由を理事官に照会して査照せしむべし。尤、縛して取るたる罪人は、各港にては地方官と理事官と会合して吟味し、内地にては地方官一手にて吟味し、其事情を理事官に照会して査照せしむべし。若し此国の人民、彼国に在て一揆徒党を企て、十人以上の数に及び、並に彼国人民を誘結通謀し、害を地方に作すの事有らば、彼国の官より早速査拏し、各港にては理事官に掛合い会審し、内地にては地方官より理事官に照会せしめ、何れも事を犯せし地方に於て法を正すべし。

  第十四条
両国の兵船、開港場に往来することは自国の商民を保護するためなれば、都て未開港場及び内地の河湖支港へ乗入ることを許さず。違う者は引留て罰を行うべし。尤、風に遇い難を避るために乗入りたる者は此例に在らず。

  第十五条
此後両国、若し別国と兵を用ゆる事有るに付、防禦いたすべき各港に於て布告をなさば、暫く貿易並に船隻の出入を差止め、誤て傷損を受けざらしむべし。又平時に於て大日本人は大清の開港場及び最寄海上にて、何れも不和の国と互に争闘搶刼することを許さず。

  第十六条
両国の理事官は、何れも貿易を為すことを得ず。亦条約なき国の理事官を兼勤することを許さず。若し事務の計い方、衆人の心に叶わざる実拠有らば、彼此何れも書面を以て秉権大臣に掛合い、査明して引取らしむべし。一人事を破るに因て両国の友誼を損傷するに至らしめず。

  第十七条
両国の船印は各定式あり。万一彼国に船、此国の船印を仮冐して私に不法の事を為さば、其船並に荷物とも取上ぐべし。若し其船印、官員より渡したる者ならば其筋に申立、官を罷めしむべし。又両国の書籍は彼此誦習わんと願わば、互に売買することを許す。

  第十八条
両国議定せし条規は、何れも預め防範を為し、偶嫌隙を生ずるを免れしめ、以て講信修好の道を尽す所なり。是に因て両国欽差全権大臣、証拠のため先ず花押を調印をなし置き、両国御筆の批准相済に互に取替わせし後ち、版刻して各処に通行し、彼民に普く遵守せしを永く以て好を為すべし。

TRANSLATION

Having examined all the Articles mentioned in the Treaty of Friendship and Trade Regulations concluded between the Empire of Japan and the Empire of China by Date Muneki, Minister of Finance, who had been directed to proceed to China, and having sanctioned their maintenance in force during perpetuity, for the promotion of friendship between both countries, We hereby command it to be notified to all the high authorities of the fu  and ken  within the Empire, that they may know and observe in the transactions of business everything necessary for the observance of this Treaty, after the exchange of its ratification.

            Signed by Soyeshima Tanewomi, Minister for Foreign Affairs, the 9th day, 3rd month, in the 6th year of Meiji, and two thousand five hundred and thirty-three years since the accession of Gimmu Tenno.

                By Imperial Order,

(Signed)            Soyeshima Tanewomi,

                         Minister for Foreign Affairs

                                        Seal.

        The Empire of China and the Empire of Japan having been on good terms of friendship for a long period of years, now desire by common action to cement their ancient relations and to make the intercourse subsisting between the two countries more close.

        To this end, Li, by Imperial appointment Plenipotentiary Minister of the Empire of China for the management of commercial affairs, Senior Guardian of the Heir Apparent, Assistant Grand Secretary, President of the Board of War, Governor General of the province of Chihli, and invested with the first degree of the third order of nobility; and Date, Minister Plenipotentiary of the Empire of Japan, etc., etc.; each acting in obedience to the decrees of their respective Sovereigns, have conferred together and have agreed to articles for the reconstruction of relations, to the end that they may be observed with good faith on both sides in perpetuity.

        The Articles agreed upon are as follows: —

Article I.

        Relations of amity shall henceforth be maintained in redoubled force between China and Japan, in measure as boundless as the heaven and the earth.  In all that regards the territorial possessions of either country the two Governments shall treat each the other with proper courtesy, without the slightest infringement or encroachment on either side, to the end that there may be for evermore peace between them undisturbed.

Article II.

        Friendly intercourse thus existing between the two Governments, it is the duty of each to sympathise with the other, and in the event of any other nation acting unjustly or treating either of the two Powers with contempt, on notice being given [by the one to the other], mutual assistance shall be rendered or mediation offered for the arrangement of the difficulty, in fulfilment of the duty imposed by relations of friendship.

Article III.

        The system of government and the penal enactments of the two Governments being different from each other each shall be allowed to act in entire independence.  There shall be no interference offered, nor shall requests for innovations be obtruded.  Each shall aid the other in enforcement of the laws, nor shall either allow its subjects to entice the people of the other country to commit acts in violation of the laws.

Article IV.

        It will be competent for either Government to send Plenipotentiary Ministers, with their families and suites, to reside in the capital of the other, either permanently or from time to time.  Their travelling expenses as they pass through the country will be defrayed by themselves.  In the matter of their hiring ground or buildings to serve as Legations, of the passage of their baggage to and fro, of the conveyance of their correspondence by special couriers, and the like, due assistance shall be rendered on either side.

Article V.

        Although the functionaries of the two Governments have fixed grades, the nature of the offices conferred are different on either side.  Officers of equivalent rank will meet and correspond with each other on a footing of equality.  When an officer visits a superior, the intercourse between them will be such as is prescribed by the rites of hospitality.  For the transaction of public business, the officials of the two countries will address communications to officers of their own rank, who will report in turn to their respective superiors; they will not address the superior officer directly.  In visits, cards with the official title of the visitor shall be sent on either side.  All officials sent on the part of either Government to the other shall present for inspection a letter bearing an official stamp, in order to guard against false personation.

Article VI.

        In official correspondence, China will use the Chinese language, and Japan will use either the Japanese language accompanied by a Chinese version, or a Chinese version alone, as may be found on her side preferable.

Article VII.

        Friendly intercourse having been established between the two Governments, it will behove them both to appoint certain ports on the seaboard which their merchants will be authorised to frequent for purposes of trade, and to lay down, separately, Regulations of Trade that their respective mercantile communities may abide by in perpetuity.

Article VIII.

        At the ports appointed in the territory of either Government it will be competent for the other to station Consuls for the control of its own merchant community.  All suits in which they (the Consul’s nationals) are the only parties, the matter in dispute being money or property, it will fall to the Consul to adjudicate according to the law of his own State.  In mixed suits, the plaint having been laid before the Consul, he will endeavour in the first instance to prevent litigation by friendly counsel; if this be not possible, he will write officially to the local authority, and in concert with him will fairly try the case and decide it.  Where acts of theft or robbery are committed, and where debtors abscond, the local authorities can do no more than search for and apprehend the guilty parties; they shall not be held liable to make compensation.

Article IX.

        At any of the ports appointed at which no Consul shall have been stationed, the control and care of the traders resorting thither shall devolve on the local authorities.  In case of the commission of any act of crime, the guilty party shall be apprehended, and the particulars of his offence communicated to the Consul at the nearest port, by whom he shall be tried and punished according to law.

Article X.

        At the ports named in either country the officials and people of the other shall be at liberty to engage natives for service, or as artizans, or to attend to commercial business.  The persons so engaged shall be kept in order by the persons so engaging them, who shall not allow them to perpetrate acts of fraud under any pretext; still less shall they give rise to cause of complaint by giving ear to statements advanced from illicit motives.  In the case of any offence being committed by any person employed in the manner above mentioned, the local authority shall be at liberty to apprehend and punish the delinquent; the employer shall not favour or protect him.

Article XI.

        Whereas it is the duty of the subjects of either Power residing at the ports declared open in either country to live on friendly terms with the native inhabitants, it is provided that they shall not be allowed to wear arms; infraction of this rule will be punishable by a fine, accompanied by the confiscation of the arms.  Residents as aforesaid shall attend peaceably to their own avocations, and whether residing permanently or for the time being at a port, they shall submit to the authority of their Consul.  They shall not be allowed to adopt the costume of the country in which they may reside, nor to obtain local registration and compete at the literary examinations, lest disorder and confusion be produced.

Article XII.

        If any subject of either Power, having violated the law of his own country, secrete himself in any official building, merchant vessel, or warehouse of the other State, or escape to any place in the territory of the other, on official application being made by the authority of the State of which such offender is a subject to the authority of the other, the latter shall immediately take steps for the arrest of the offender, without show of favour.  Whilst in custody he shall be provided with food and clothing, and shall not be subjected to ill-usage.

Article XIII.

        If any subject of either Power connect himself at any of the open ports with lawless offenders for purposes of robbery or other wrongdoing, or if any work his way into the interior and commit acts of incendiarism, murder, or robbery, active measures for his apprehension shall be taken by the proper authority, and notice shall at the same time be given without delay to the Consul of the offender’s nationality.  Any offender who shall venture with weapons of a murderous nature to resist capture may be slain in the act without further consequences, but the circumstances which have led to his life being thus taken shall be investigated at an inquest which will be held by the Consul and the local authority together.  In the event of the occurrence taking place in the interior, so far from the port that the Consul cannot arrive in time for the inquest, the local authority shall communicate a report of the facts of the case to the Consul.

        When arrested and brought up for trial, the offender, if at a port, shall be tried by the local authority and the Consul together; in the interior, he shall be tried and dealt with by the local authority, who will officially communicate the facts of the case to the Consul.

        If subjects of either Power shall assemble to the number of ten or more to foment disorder and commit excesses in the dominions of the other, or shall induce subjects of the other therein to conspire with them for the doing of injury to the other Power, the authorities of the latter shall be free at once to arrest them.  If at a port, their Consul shall be informed, in order that he may take part in their trial; if in the interior, the local authority shall duly try them, and shall officially communicate particulars to the Consul.  In either case capital punishment shall be inflicted at the scene of the commission of the offence.

Article XIV.

        Vessels of war of either Power shall be at liberty to frequent the ports of the other for the protection of the subjects of their own country, but they shall in no case enter ports not declared open by Treaty, nor rivers, lakes, and streams in the interior.  Any vessels infringing this rule shall be placed under embargo and fined.  This stipulation shall not, however, apply to vessels driven into port by stress of weather.

Article XV.

        If either State of the two should be involved in war with any other Power, measures for the defence of the coast being thereby entailed, on notice being given, trade shall be suspended for the time being, together with the entry and departure of ships, lest injury befall them.  Japanese subjects ordinarily established in the appointed ports of China, or being in the seas adjoining China, and Chinese subjects ordinarily established at the open ports of Japan, or being in the seas adjoining thereunto, shall not be permitted to engage in collisions with subjects of a hostile Power, or to attack and plunder them.

Article XVI.

        No Consul of either Power shall be allowed to trade or to act as Consul for a Power not in Treaty relations with the other.  In the case of any Consul so acting as to render himself generally unacceptable, on substantial proof to this effect being produced, it shall be competent for the Government interested to communicate officially with the Minister Plenipotentiary, who, when he shall have ascertained the truth, shall remove the Consul, in order that the friendly relations of the two Governments may not suffer detriment through the misconduct of a single individual.

Article XVII.

        The flags carried by the vessels of either country are of a fixed design.  If a vessel of either, having falsely assumed the colours of the other, shall do that which is contrary to law, the vessel and goods shall be confiscated; and if it appear that the false colours were given by an official, he shall be denounced and removed from his post.

        The subjects of either country shall be at liberty to purchase the books of the other, if desirous of studying its literature.

Article XVIII.

        The foregoing Articles are agreed to by the two Contracting Powers in order to the prevention of misunderstanding, to the end that perfect confidence and improved relations may subsist between them.  In testimony whereof the Ministers Plenipotentiary of the two Contracting Powers do now accordingly sign and affix their seals hereto.  So soon as the Present Treaty shall have been ratified by their respective Sovereigns, and ratified copies of it exchanged, it shall be printed and published, and circulated throughout the dominions of either Power, for the information of the subjects of both countries, to the end that there may be a good understanding between them for evermore.

        Dated the 29th day of the 7th moon of the 10th year of T’ung Chih, corresponding to the 29th day of the 7th month in the 4th year of Meiji.

        [L.S.]                        (Signed)            LI HUNG-CHANG.

        [L.S.]                        (Signed)            DATE MUNEKI.


China. Treaties, Conventions, etc., between China and Foreign States, misc. series no. 30. Shanghai: Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs, 1917. pp. 507-584.

Annotated by Miriam Kaminishi