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Treaty of Peace and Frontiers (Zuhab/Kasr-ı Şirin), 1639

17 May 1639
Reaffirmed 4 September 1746, 28 July 1823, 31 May 1847)

        Praise to God, the Holy, the Gracious, the bestower of Victory; who has opened the door of peace and concord with the key of the words: "Verily I wish nothing so much as reconciliation," and dispelled the darkness of war and fighting with the light of quiet and happiness. Blessings and benedictions, so long as flowers spread their perfume and daylight shines, upon his Prophet who has fully and clearly manifested the faith, and with whose auspicious advent Islamism was greatly rejoiced; and upon his family, children and companions who have been active in propagating that faith.

        Now, whereas, by the will and good pleasure of Him who raised the skies without pillars, and by an effect of the wisdom and omnipotency of Him who composed all things from various elements, and who has no equal, good order in society, and the conservation of the world depend upon the justice and equity of the Sovereigns, and upon their good understanding and union, no less than upon their submission to the positive and to the negative divine Commands, the August Sultans have, in conformity to this sacred precept: “Fear God and reconcile yourselves,” resorted to reconciliation, which is a source of happiness, and renounced to hostilities and war, the sword of mutual contrariety was put into the scabbard; and nations which were making war with each other, cordially reconciled themselves. "That is a favour of God. He grants it to whom He pleases: and God is most gracious.

        I, therefore, the most humble of all the servants of God, being charged and authorized to do or undo whatever concerns the Empire and the nation, and to make, just as I choose, war or peace, an authority which I hold from the most glorious Padishah who is the Defender of the faith, whose Majesty is as great as that of Solomon, who is the substitute of God in the world, and who has justified the maxim that “An equitable Sultan is the shadow of God on earth”; the asylum of the greatest Musulman Princes, the shelter of the most illustrious Turkish Sovereigns, the supporter of Islamism and of Musulmans, the exterminator of heresies and of the polytheists, the Sovereign of the two lands and of the two seas, the Sovereign of the two Orients and of the two Occidents, the servant of the two Holy Cities, the treasure of Mankind and apple of the age, who is protected by the Supreme Being whose divine assistance men implore, and favoured by the most High and propitious God; May His Imperial Majesty's Dynasty last till the end of the world, and their reign be prolonged till the consummation of ages! have, in virtue of my full powers and my real character of the Sultan's substitute, ordered the Turkish victorious troops to march from beneath Baghdad, and began to go forward with an intention of entering the Persian territory. On our arrival at a station called Haronia, the most distinguished among the Grandees Chems Uddin Mehmed Culy Bey, Great Equerry, arrived there in the capacity of Ambassador with a Letter from Him who is the ornament of the Persian Throne, the splendour of the Kingdom of Djem, and whose magnificence is equal to that of Darius, the great Prince and illustrious Lord, the Precious Pearl of the Sea of Royalty, the sun of the sky of Sovereignty, the noble Eagle of the high region of the Dignity of Shah, the most Illustrious and Majestic Prince whose troops are as numerous as the stars; may the most High God raise the banners of his strength from earth to Heaven, and exalt the edifice of his glory to the height of the vaulted sky! to our great and august Padishah, and also a flattering Letter to me. The Ambassador having asked that the fire of war should be extinguished and the dust of fighting dispersed, stating that His Majesty the Shah's will is that reconciliation and peace between the two Parties should take place, I, on my part too, wishing to act in conformity to the sacred text, to wit: “If they incline to peace, do ye also incline to it,” have readily consented, for the sake of the safety and tranquillity of mankind to make Peace; and a letter was sent to the Shah to the end that His Majesty might send a Person of confidence with power to settle the conditions of the Peace, in a manner suitable to the honour and dignity of the two Governments. Consequently the Shah has appointed according to the established laws and rules, to negotiate and conclude this treaty of Peace, and establish and fix the state of the frontiers, the most excellent and faithful Saroukhan, may he always be fortunate in transacting affairs on which quiet and security depend! Saroukhan, on his arrival in the Imperial Camp at Zahab, was received with marks of hospitality; and on the 14th day of Muharem, in the year 1049 of the Hegira of the Prophet, upon whom be the best benedictions, a Divan was held in the Imperial Camp, in which were present the illustrious Vizirs, the Miri Miran, the Commanders and Agas, the Aga of the Janissaries, six Agas of six Companies, and other officers of the army. Saroukhan, the Plenipotentiary who was duly accredited, and the Ambassador Mehmed Culy Bey, were introduced in the Divan, and the preliminaries were discussed with them so as to put on a good footing the position of the Rayas and of the poor who are a trust imposed by the Author of all beings, and the result of the discussions on both Parties has been written down and is as follows: Tzanan, Bedrie, Mendelgeen, Derteuk , and Dernai, in the Pashalik of Baghdad, will remain under the authority of our august Padishah, who will also take possession of the Plains between Mendelgeen and Derteuk, and the Mountain will remain under the authority of the Shah. Serminil is fixed as frontier between Derteuk and Dernai. That part of the country of Haronia, occupied by the Tribes of Djaf and Zilja Uddin, will belong to the Sultan. Pezai and Zerdony remain to the Shah. The fortress of Zindjir, which lies on the top of the Mountain, shall be demolished; the Sultan will take possession of the Villages lying westward of it, and the Shah will take possession of those lying eastward. The Villages on the Mountain above Salim Calè, near Chehrezor, will be in the possession of the Sultan, and the Villages lying on the East, will be in the possession of the Shah, who will also keep the Castle of Orman, with the Villages which are dependent on it. The defile leading on Chehrezor has been established as a frontier. The fortress of Kizilidji with its dependencies shall remain in the possession of the Sultan; and Mihreban with the dependencies thereof, in that of the Shah. The fortresses of Cotour (Kotur) and Makoo on the frontier of Van, and the fortress of Magazberd towards Kars and Van, will be demolished by the two Parties, and so long as the Shah will not have molested the fortresses of Akiskha, Kars, Van, Chehrezor, Baghdad, Bassora, and other Places within the limits, such as fortresses, forts, Districts, lands, hills and mountains, and no such horrible act as provoking to rebellion shall have been committed by Him, on their part also His Majesty our Great Padishah will respect this Peace, and no molestation shall, contrary to Treaty, be done to the places which remain within the limits of the other side.

        In order, therefore, that Merchants and travellers belonging to either Party may come and go and meet with a friendly reception, I have, in virtue of my full power and positive authority written down this egregious Treaty, the contents of which are true, and sent it to His Majesty the Shah, and to our most August Padishah. So long as the Shah shall, according to the Sacred text: “Do not violate an agreement after ye have done it" observe this treaty as it ought to be observed, His Imperial Majesty, our most Magnificent Padishah also, will act in obedience to the Holy Command: “Fulfil your agreement, for an agreement is obligatory.

        This Happy Peace will last and be maintained, with the permission of God, till the day of resurrection: “And he who shall alter it after having heard it, verily this sin shall be upon those who shall have altered it.”

        Praise to God; He is the sole God, and blessings upon him after whom there will be no Prophet. In the beginning; and in the end; and externally; and internally…

The most humble of the servants of God.

Mustafa, Grand Vizier.


Blech, Edward C. and Sherwood, Harry I. (eds.). British & Foreign State Papers, vol. 105 (1912). London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1915. pp. 763-66.