Rebalancing the disproportionate interest of the latter over the former, Coastal Tourism studies the ways in which the environmental counterpart has and can be adapted naturally and artificially to build the sustainability of tourist coasts. This research calls attention to a better understanding and appreciation of the basic aspects of the coasts for tourism development. It has also raised other concerns such as sea-level rise, which is currently ignored in many resort developments, and explores a myriad of development possibilities that exist for resort development, many of which will benefit both the environment and tourists. After the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the research is looking into the implications of the rehabilitation of tourist coasts.
Larger photographs of the following exhibits can be viewed in the multimedia gallery.
Sustainable coastal tourism development should start with a firm understanding of coastal geomorphology. These include the seasonality of beaches (A1), the dynamics of river mouths (A2), the importance of rock outcrops (A3), beachrock (A4) and mangroves (A5).
Resort sites can take advantage of coastal geomorphology (A6). For example, limestone coasts (A7) and rocky headlands (A8) can be used, beaches can be constructed (A9), and even islands can be built in a large swimming pool (A10).
Islands remain a fascination for tourists. But they are fragile ecosystems and require careful planning relating to access (B1), removal of sewage (B2), removal of solid wastes (B3), provision of portable water (B4) and construction of tourist structures away from the beach – not on the beach (B5).
The 26th December 2004 Asian tsunami has impacts and implications for tourism development. The rehabilitation measures include planting protective natural ecosystems such as coastal vegetation (C1), constructing walls (C2), raising the backshore (C3) or adapting through other methods (C4). Many resorts have rebuilt on the same sites and a better understanding of the beach reconstruction is necessary to arrive at improved adaptation measures (C5).
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the sea level is expected to rise 9-88 cm by 2100. The sea-level rise is seldom considered in the planning and development of resorts and seafront property. Already, the occurrence of extreme high tides provides an analogue of the impacts of a sea-level rise on low-lying coasts : beach erosion (D1), inundation (D2), deposition (D3) and property damage (D4). Adaptation strategies, policies and measures should be planned carefully.
A/P Wong’s work on the subject can be found in the following websites:
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [2001. Small island states]
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [v. 1, chapter 23. Island systems]
The Coastal Society Bulletin [December 2005, v. 27, no. 4. Post-tsunami challenges for CZM: some observations]
UNEP Industry and Environment [v. 24, no. 3-4, Trends in ecotourism in Southeast Asia]
(b) Intranet (accessible only through NUS Intranet)
Ocean and Coastal Management [1998, v. 38, ../pages 89-109]
Ocean and Shoreline Management [1990, v. 13, ../pages 127-147]
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography [2003, v. 24, ../pages 111-132]
Tourism Geographies [2006, v. 8, ../pages 253-273]